Depression flashcards

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Williams (page 6)
Found inter rater reliability and diagnostic accuracy to be very high using the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV patients
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Beck (page 6)
gave 2 psychiatrists 153 patients to diagnose and found the inter-rater reliability was as low as 54% suggesting the diagnostic tool is not always reliable
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Beck et al (page 7)
studied the test-retest reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory using the responses of 26 outpatients who were tested at two therapy sessions, one week apart. Found a correlation of 0.93, which is significant.
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Barlow (page 7)
found that 39% of patients with agoraphobia and 35% of patients with panic disorders also had depression.
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Bertakis et al (page 8)
found that clinicians were more likely to diagnose a woman as depressed even when the level of severity of depression was the same for a man, suggesting that there is a gender bias in diagnosis
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Davidson and Neal (page 8)
Found that Asian cultures encourage individuals to show no emotion when experiencing turmoil, whilst arabic cultures encourage the outpouring of public emotion in difficult times.
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Szasz (page 8)
Argues that diagnosis is made on political and social grounds and merely attaches a stigmatising label.
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SCheff (page 8)
state that a classification system may lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy in that, patients who are labelled as depressed will act depressed to fit their label
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Gershon (page 9)
reviewed 10 family studies and found that rates of depression in first degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with depression ranged between 7 and 30%, which is higher than prevalence rate in the general population
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Wender (page 9)
Studied peple who had been adopted and were suffereing from depression. Found that biological relatives were 7x more likely to have depression
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Mcguffin (page 10)
found a 46% concordance rate among MZ twins compared with a 20% concordance among DZ twins.
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Mann (page 10)
Found impaired serotonin transmission in people with depression.
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McNeal (page 10)
Found that cerebrospinal fluid in depressed patients contains less of a major seratonin by product.
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Teuting, Rosen and Hirschfield (page 11)
compared substances found in urine of depressed and normal patients, and found that less noradrenaline
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Suomi (page 11)
studies rhesus monkeys for 15 years and found 20% were born with a genetic tendency to be depressed. These monkeys released cortisol when put under stress
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Waller et al (page 14)
Found men who had lost their fathers during childhood scored higher on a depression scale
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Bifulco (page 14)
Found evidence that women whose mothers died in their childhood were more likely to experience depression later in life
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Beck (page 15)
negative self schemas may be acquired as a result of childhood trauma
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Beck (page 15)
came up with the cognitive triad explaining the cognitive ideas for depression
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Beck (page 15)
two different personality types which respond to events diffferently: sociotrophy - basing self esteem on approval of others, Autotrophy - basing self esteem on success/achievements
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Butler and Beck (page 17)
meta analysis of 14 studies, concluded out 80% of adults benefitted from therapy
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Gitlin (page 18)
65% - 75% of patients given an antidepressant for 3 months showed signs of improvement, compared to 33% success rate of placebo
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Montgomery et al (page 19)
If tricyclics stopped being taken, there is a 50% relapse rate
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Jarret et al (page 19)
found that Monoamine oxidase Inhibitors were more effective than tricyclics for severe depression
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Julien (page 19)
Developed an arm patch that reduces risk of reaction to foods by slowly releasing the drug over a long period of time
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Richards and Lyness (page 20)
reviewed studies of ECT and found it to be effective in 60 - 70% of depressed patients
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Janicak (page 20)
80% of patients responded to ECT but only 64% to drugs
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Sackheim (page 20)
found a high relapse rate within a year of treatment
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Keller (page 23)
Found the CBT is more effective when commbined with drugs (85% success rate with drugs compared to 52% alone)
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Martin (page 25)
PET scans of depressed patients have shown that IPT can result in normalised brain scnas in prefrontal and temporal lobes
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Musford
IPT available to a wide range of patients from adolescents to adults
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Boston-New Haven study (page 26)
in a 16 weeek trial IPT found to be as effective as drug therapy and patients treated with IPT sustained an improved psychosocial functioning one year later
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NIHM - Elkin (page 26)
conducted a 16 week trial which found IPT was as effective as drugs, and had the lowest relapse rate
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Card 2

Front

gave 2 psychiatrists 153 patients to diagnose and found the inter-rater reliability was as low as 54% suggesting the diagnostic tool is not always reliable

Back

Beck (page 6)

Card 3

Front

studied the test-retest reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory using the responses of 26 outpatients who were tested at two therapy sessions, one week apart. Found a correlation of 0.93, which is significant.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

found that 39% of patients with agoraphobia and 35% of patients with panic disorders also had depression.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

found that clinicians were more likely to diagnose a woman as depressed even when the level of severity of depression was the same for a man, suggesting that there is a gender bias in diagnosis

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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