Depression Flashcards

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How long must symptoms be present for MDD diagnosis?
Most of the day almost every day, for at least 2 weeks.
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Things affected by MDD?
Sleep, Appetite, Sad Mood, Low Energy, Suicidal Thoughts.
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How long must symptoms be present for dysthemia diagnosis?
More than half the time, for at least 2 years.
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Major difference between MDD and dysthemia?
MDD is episodic, dysthemia is chronic.
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Defining feature of bipolar disorders?
Presence of manic episodes in addition to depressive episodes
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What is mania?
State of intense elation / irritability.
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What is cyclothemia?
Chronic form of bipolar, symptoms present for 2 years, milder than bipolar.
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Prevalence of MDD, dysthemia, bipolar and cyclothemia?
MDD = 16.2% ; dysthemia = 2.5% ; Bipolar = 1-2% ; cyclothemia = 4%
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Medical / Biological Causes of Depression?
Genetics, Neurochemicals (NA, 5HT, Dopamine, Cortisol), Brain Functioning (Neurogenesis, Amygdala, PFC)
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Social Causes?
Stressful life events as triggers, e.g. loss and humiliation.
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Psychodynamic causes?
Unconscious conflicts / loss / fixation at oral period / anger turned inward.
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Cognitive causes?
Beck (1967) negative triad, negative schemata, cognitive biases.
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Behavioural Causes?
Lack of positive reinforcement, reinforcement by attention / smpathy, learned helplessness.
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Widely accepted view of causes?
Integration of causes (e.g. predisposed with bio factors but triggered/maintained by social, cognitive etc.
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Drug treatments?
MAOIs, Tricyclics, SSRIs, NRIs, SNRIs
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Other biological treatments?
Electro convulsive therapy (ECT), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), Psychosurgery (Lobotomy)
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3 Steps of Behavioural Activation Therapy?
1) Pleasant events schedule, 2) reward non-depressive behaviours, 3) train in social skills.
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Psychoanalytic therapy?
1) Free Association, 2) Dream Analysis
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Name the 4 humanistic therapies?
1) Client-centred therapy, 2) Encounter Groups, 3) Gestalt Therapy, 4) Transactional Analysis
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Cognitive Therapies?
1) Rational-Emotive Therapy (Ellis) 2) CBT (Beck), 3) Mindfulness Based Therapy
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Things affected by MDD?

Back

Sleep, Appetite, Sad Mood, Low Energy, Suicidal Thoughts.

Card 3

Front

How long must symptoms be present for dysthemia diagnosis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Major difference between MDD and dysthemia?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Defining feature of bipolar disorders?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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