Depression

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Beck et al
Demonstrated concurrent validity between BDI and other measures of depression
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Burrows et al
Specialist under diagnosed depression is 65% of nursing home residents assuming symptoms were result of other things
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Satso
Found a 77% concordance rate when assessing test retest reliability of numerous inventories to diagnose depression
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Weel-Baumgaarten
GP diagnosis less objective because based on previous knowledge of patient
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Einfield
High level of agreement between skilled clinicians in diagnosing depression
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Karasz
South Asian immigrants believed mental illness down to social and moral terms and suggestion self management as a treatment
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McGuffin
Studied concordance of depression between MZ and DZ twins using a postal questionnaire, found concordance rate of 46% in MZ and 20% in dz showing significant heritable component
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Wender et al
Biological relatives of adopted depressed patients 7X more likely to be depressed than adoptive relatives
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zhang
Mutant gene which starves brain of serotonin 10X more prevalent in depressed patients than controls. Comes for brain enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-2 which makes serotonin and can result in an 80% reduction in normal serotonin levels
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Caron et al
Found mutant version in 9 out of 17 depressed patients but only 3 out of 219 controls
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Kendler
Higher incidence of depression in twins when looking at depression and generalised anxiety disorder than just depression alone. Inherit vulnerability to a range of disorders, actual symptoms that develop may be a result of environmental triggers
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Brunney et al
Indirect markers of noradrenaline eg product of I done often low in depressed individuals
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Leonard
Drugs that lower noradrenaline brin about depressive state
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Kraft et al
96 patients with MDD treat with SSRI showed significantly more positive result than those with a placebo
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McNeal and Cimbolic
Cerebrospinal fluid in depressed, particularly suicidal patients had reduced amounts of serotonin by products
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Ruhe et al
Patients whose depression was in remission given tryptophan deficient amino acid mixtures experienced relapse of symptoms. But individuals who had never been depressed nor had a family history of depression showed no mood changed following depletion
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Mann et al
MDD results from serotonin deficiency or insufficient serotonin receptors
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Beck
Believes individuals are depressed due to biased thinking towards negative interpretation of the world. Negative schema. Negative triad; pessimistic view of self, world and future
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Seligman
Depression may be learned when individual meets but fails to control negative experiences
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Boury et al
Depressives misinterpret factors and experiences in negative fashion and feel hopeless about future
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March et al
CBT effective in reducing suicidal thoughts and behaviur. 30% expressed suicidal thoughts at start, 15% after drug treatment and 6% after CBT
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Freud
Depression result of real or imagined loss. Childhood experiences repressed because ego nt developed to cope. Guilt directed to oneself. Mourning and meloncholia
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Shah and waller
Many who suffered from depression described parents as 'affectionless' supports Freud theory of loss through withdrawal of affection
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Bowlby
DemonstRes link between maternal deprivation and adult depression
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Harlow et al
Monkeys separated from mothers showed depressive symptoms
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Comer
found that psychoanalysis hasn't proved very effective treatment for depression may be because of difficulties patients have expressing emotions and communicating with therapist effectively
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Kirsch et al
Reviewed clinical trials of SSRI, found that only in cases of most sever depression was SSRI significantly advantageous
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Furukawa
Found antidepressants superior to placebo
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Ferguson et al
Reviewed studies comparing SSRI with other treatments and placebo finding those on SSRI more likely to attempt suicide
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Comer
Found that 60-70% improve after Ect
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Sackheim
84% patients relapse within 6 months of ECT
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Scott
18 studies with 1144 patients comparing Ect and drug therapy. Found Ect more effective in short term
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Ross et al
Concluded that at least 1/3 patients complain of persistent memory loss
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Sackheim et al
UnilTeral less likely to cause cognitive problems and may be as effective
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Department of Health report 2007
Of those receiving Ect in past two years 30% reported it resulted in permanent fear and anxiety
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DOH report
700 patients who received Ect when sanctioned under the mental health act , 59% hadn't consented to treatment
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Bergin
Analysed data from 100,000 patient histories finding that 80% benefited from psychoanalysis compared to 65% using other treatments
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Bergin
The longer therapy lasted the more likely the patient is to recover
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Loftus
Psychoanalysis assumes individuals are able to recall repressed memories but there is little evidence to suggest this
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Robinson et al
Found CBT superior to no treatment control group. But when split into waiting lost and placebo, not superior to placebo
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Bryant et al
Therapist who are able to improve client engagement with homework have associated benefits in terms of outcomes
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Seligman
CBT more effective than antidepressants
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Evans et al
Found relapse rate lower in CBT than other treatments
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Specialist under diagnosed depression is 65% of nursing home residents assuming symptoms were result of other things

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Burrows et al

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Found a 77% concordance rate when assessing test retest reliability of numerous inventories to diagnose depression

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GP diagnosis less objective because based on previous knowledge of patient

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High level of agreement between skilled clinicians in diagnosing depression

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