Depression

What is the definition of depression?
Complex disorder affecting a person mentally, physically and emotionally. Characterised by a low mood, making the sufferer unable to function normally
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What is 'unipolar depression'?
An inescapable and persistent low mood that is accompanied by a low self esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normal enjoyable activities
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What is 'bipolar depression'?
Periods of depression and mania. During mania the sufferer behaves or feels abnormally energetic and happy or irritable. During depression they will likely cry and have a negative outlook on life, making poor contact with others.
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True or False: Depression is said to be the third most common reason for GP visits
TRUE
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True or False: There are several types of depression
TRUE
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True or False: Depressed people are always suicidal
FALSE
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True or False: 'Clinical Depression' is the most common type
TRUE
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True or False: Depression occurs after something bad has happened
FALSE
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True or False: Clinical depression is the same as Unipolar depression
TRUE
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True or False: The DSM refers to depression as 'Major Depressive Disorder'
TRUE
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True or False: Major Depressive Disorder is a complex disorder that can affect a person mentally, emotionally and physically
TRUE
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True or False: Depression is just a medial term for someone who is sad
FALSE
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True or False: Someone who is depressed is unable to function properly and is robbed of pleasure
TRUE
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True or False: Depression can easily be treated - just take anti-depressants
FALSE
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True or False: Depressed people are just negative, they they were more positive they wouldn't be depressed
FALSE
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True or False: Depression only affects women
FALSE
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True or False: Depression can manifest itself as anxiety
TRUE
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True or False: Its up to the individuals if they want to be depressed or not
FALSE
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True or False: Depressed people don't always loom depressed
TRUE
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What are the 3 behavioural characteristics of Unipolar Depression?
Activity Levels. Disruption to sleep and eating behaviour. Aggression and self-harm
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Describe Activity Levels as a behavioural characteristic of Unipolar Depression
Sufferers have low anxiety, less lethargic. They tend to withdraw from work/school/social life. In some cases they cannot leave bed. OR HAVE OPPOSITE EFFECT. They have Psychomotor Agitation - feel relaxed and may pace around room
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Describe Disruption to Sleep and Eating Behaviour as a behavioural characteristic of Unipolar Depression
Behaviours disrupted by depression - Sufferers may have insomnia (not sleeping), or hyposomnia (over sleeping). Appetite with rise and fall, leading to severe weight change.
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Describe Aggression and Self-harm as a behavioural characteristic of Unipolar Depression
Sufferers often irritable, verbally/physically aggressive, often having knock-on effects - lead to breakups and quitting job. Physical aggression can also be on themselves - self-harm, cutting, suicide attempts
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What are the 3 emotional characteristics of Unipolar Depression?
Lowered mood, Anger, Low self-esteem
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Describe Lowered Mood as a emotional characteristic of Unipolar Depression
'Depressed' is associated with being sad but there is more to clinical depression than this. Feeling lethargic, sad, worthless and empty.
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Describe Anger as a emotional characteristic of Unipolar Depression
Experience more negative emotions and less positive emotions during their episodes. Sufferers may experience extreme anger and themselves and others
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Describe Low Self-esteem as a emotional characteristic of Unipolar Depression
Sufferers are likely to have a low-self esteem and experience extreme self-loathing
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What are the 3 cognitive characteristics of Unipolar Depression?
Poor concentration. Attending to and dwelling on the negatives. Absolutist thinking.
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Describe Poor Concentration as a cognitive characteristic of Unipolar Depression
Sufferers are likely to be unable to stick to a task, and its likely to be hard for them to make decisions, thus interfering with work.
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Describe Attending to and Dwelling on the Negatives as a cognitive characteristic of Unipolar Depression
Sufferers tend to ignore any positives in their lives and are bias to recalling unhappy events
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Describe Absolutist Thinking as a cognitive characteristic of Unipolar Depression
'Black and white thinking'. Situation is either good or bad.
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The latest version of the DSM recognises 4 categories of depression & depressive disorders, what are they?
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder. Persistent Depressive Disorder. Major Depressive Disorder.
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What is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder?
Disruption to mood prior to and/or during menstruation
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What is Major Depressive Disorder?
Longer term or reoccuring depression. Including sustained major depression and mild depression
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What is Persistent Depressive Disorder?
Severe but often short term depression
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What is Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder?
Childhood temper tantrums
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What does Beck say depression is?
It is a disorder of thought rather than need
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What is meant by a schema?
Packet of knowledge experienced in childhood, referenced to fill in blanks of info. This mental concept informs a person of what to expect from a variety of situations. Based on and developed by life experiences. Stored in memory
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How does Beck suggest people develop as dysfunctional view of themselves?
By three types of negative thinking that occur naturally; negative views on the world/environment, the future, of the self.
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What is an example of a negative view of the world/environment, and what does this do for the person?
"No-one values me". This creates the impression that there is no hope anywhere
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What is an example of a negative view of the future, and what does this do for the person?
"I am hopeless because things will never change". Such thoughts reduce any hopefulness and enhance depression
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What is an example of a negative view of the self, and what does this do for the person?
"I am worthless and ugly". Such thoughts enhance any depressive feelings because they confirm the existing emotions of low self-esteem.
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What is a cognitive bias, and who suggested them?
Beck - He believes depressed people develop them, and that they are cognitive distortions to how they perceive things. He believes they are automatic, suggesting that they are not entirely under conscious control
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What are some examples of cognitive bias, as suggested by Beck?
Personalisation ("this is all my fault"). Magnification (making a mountain out of a molehill). Arbitrary Inference (making a conclusion even though there is little to no evidence)..
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What does the (A) stand for in the A-B-C model of depression?
Activating Event
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What does the (B) stand for in the A-B-C model of depression?
Beliefs
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What does the (C) stand for in the A-B-C model of depression?
Consequences
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Whop came up with the A-B-C Model of Depression?
Ellis
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What does Ellis suggest that good mental health is the result of?
Rational thinking - thinking in ways that allow people to be happy and free of pain. He belives depression and anxiety (poor mental health) is the result of an irrational belief
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How does Ellis define irrational thoughts/beliefs?
Any thoughts that interfere with us being happy and free of pain.
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What did Ellis use his ABC model to explain?
To explain how irrational thoughts affect our behaviour and emotional state
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What are the three types of irrational belief identified by Ellis?
Musturbation. Utopianism. 'I-cant-stand-it itis'
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According to Ellis, what is the Uptopianism belief?
The belief that life is always meant to be fair
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According to Ellis, what is the Musturbation belief?
The belief that we must always succeed or achieve perfection
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According to Ellis, what is the 'I-cant-stand-it itis' belief?
The belief that it is a major disaster whenever something does not go smoothly
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How can Lloyds research support the idea that cognitions are involved in depression?
Showed depressed ppts words that they had to recall a pleasant/unpleasant experience of the stimulus. Found that people with low depression responded quicker when recalling pleasant memories. Supports that people have automatic negative thoughts.
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How can neurochemistry research criticise the cognitive explanation of depression?
Neurochemistry suggest that depressison is due to an imbalance of neurotransmitters (serotonin) and therefore serotonin drug treatments will support this, rather than the explanation that depression is due to cognitive. Thus CA is too simplistic
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Why can the cognitive explanations of depression be considered very influential?
Cognitive explanations have stimulated huge amounts of research that have contributed to the understanding of the disorder including how to threat. TST approach has a positive impact on the lives of sufferers
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What is an issue with research into cognitive approach of depression?
It is not clear whether depressive thinking leads to depressed people, or depressed people create depressive thoughts. TST its difficult to establish the causal relationship between cause and effect, and more research needs to be done
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How can it be argued that depression is a biological condition caused by genes and neurotransmitters?
Research has found that serotonin levels are lower in depressed people. And drug therapies such as SSRIs increase the level of serotonin, are found effective in the treatment of depression - supports role of neurotransmitters in depression
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How is depression treated?
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Beck's Cognitive Therapy, Ellis' Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy
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Card 2

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What is 'unipolar depression'?

Back

An inescapable and persistent low mood that is accompanied by a low self esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normal enjoyable activities

Card 3

Front

What is 'bipolar depression'?

Back

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Card 4

Front

True or False: Depression is said to be the third most common reason for GP visits

Back

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Card 5

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True or False: There are several types of depression

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