Demography

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  • Created by: Min
  • Created on: 22-02-14 18:49
4 reasons for the decline in birth rate
Changing position of women (educational opportunities), attitudes towards families and women's role, easier to get a divorce and contraception and abortion
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5 changes in the position of women
Choice, delayed childbearing or not at all, career, when older they are less fertile, 1 in 5 women aged 45 were childless in 2006
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What is infant mortality? Why has it declined - 5 reasons?
number of babies who die before their first birthday per one thousand of the population. Improved housing and sanitation, better nutrition, better knowledge, improved services (post and anti- natal clinics), mass immunisation (MMR)
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Why have children become an economic liability?
Laws banning child labour and changing norms - what they have a right to expect has risen
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What is the total fertility rate? Give any rates?
Proportion of women of childbearing age (15-45) and the average number of children that they have. in the UK it has risen since 2001 when it was 1.63 to 1.84 in 2006 and in 1964 it was 2.95
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What has happened to the death rate and why?
Declined. Reduced infectious diseases; nutrition, diet and exercise; medical improvement; sewage disposal; better housing; clean air acts (4,000 premature deaths in 1952); pasteurisation of milk and water
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More reasons for the decline in the death rate?
Less dangerous manual jobs, knowledge and income
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What is life expectancy? What has happened to it and how has it changed?
How long an average person can expect to live. It has inceased because the death rate has fallen. Over the past 2 centuries, life expectancy has increased approx. 2 years a decade
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Whats the chance of someone reaching their 65th birthday now compared to the past?
Better chance of reaching it than a newborn reaching its 1st birthday in 1900
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What's an ageing population? What's it like in the UK and what does it mean?
More old people than young. It's rising in the UK and it means that there are fewer young people putting money into the economy an it puts pressure on gov.
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What suffers particular pressure from an ageing population?
pensions, healthcare, homes, transport, fuel allowance
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What is an effect of an ageing population?
Consume a larger part of public services and causes changes to policies, housing, transport and other services. One person households increase as a partner gets left after a death
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One person houshold facts?
Increased to 14% of households, mostly female because they generally live longer and are usually younger than husband
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What's the dependency ratio? Increased/decreased? What does it mean? What is it offset by?
Non-working young and old who are economically dependent groups. Increase (more ancients). Puts a burden on society more old people means people have to retire later. Fewer children
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Is old age a social construction? How are they protrayed? How are they seen in other societies? What does a statuttory retirement age do?
Yes - negatively stereotyped (anti wrinkle cream ect.). Vulnerable, incompetant, irrational, burdan. In China they are revered and respected. Forces people to rely on benefits and pushes them into poverty
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What's immigration? Where are most of them from?
Movement of people into an area/society. Bulgaria, Poland, Romania and Portugal
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What are push factors?
Why move away from an area: lack of services, lack of safety, high crime, crop failure, crop failure, flooding, poverty and war
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What are pull factors?
Why someone moves into an area: higher employment, more wealth, better services, good climate, safer, less crime, political stability, more fertile land, fewer natural hazards
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What are the impacts of immigration?
Since 1997 3/4 employment in UK taken by immigrants, half increase in UK populataion (2.4 mill.) due to net migration, UCL = betweem 1995 and 2001 contributed £8.8 bill. more than taken benefits, increases fertility rate, most are working age
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What's emmigration? Why and facts?
Movement out of an area. Main reason is for work or study. 2005, 380,000 emmigrated to Spain, Australia and France for 1yr +
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What are the recent migrations patterns?
Recently = increased. 1994 - 2004 rose from 238,000 to 360,000. 2004 net mig. = 223,000 highests since 1991. Due to expension of EU in 2004. Generally young and male. 40% UK emmigrants move to retire. If no net mig. UK pop. would be decreasing.
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Future migrations patterns?
2031 pop. increase wil be due to net migration
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Why do people migrate internally? Since when have they been doing it?
For jobs. Since the industrial revolution
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What is net migration?
Difference between number of people who emmigrate and the number of people who immigrate in a country. Expressed as a net increased/decrease
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

5 changes in the position of women

Back

Choice, delayed childbearing or not at all, career, when older they are less fertile, 1 in 5 women aged 45 were childless in 2006

Card 3

Front

What is infant mortality? Why has it declined - 5 reasons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why have children become an economic liability?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the total fertility rate? Give any rates?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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