Demography

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 27-03-15 19:37
What is the definition of demography?
The study of poulations and their characterisitics,
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What two factors affect the population increase in size since the 1800s?
births and Immigration
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What two factors affect the population decrease in size since the 1800s?
Death and emigration
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What is the general population trend in the UK in 1801 to 2007 with evidence?
It increased from 10.5 million in 1801 to 61 million in 2007,
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Why was there a population growth until the 1980s?
Due to natural changes i.e. more births than deaths,
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Why was there a population growth from 1980 onwards?
Most growth was due to net migration, more immigration than emigration,
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What is the definition of birth rate?
The number of births per 1000 of the population,
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What is the overal trend for birth rates and evidence?
Decline in the birth rate from 28.7 per 1000 in 1900 to 10.7 per 1000 in 2007,
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When were the three baby booms experienced and why then?
1) After WW1 2) After WW2 -Families were postponed during the war so restarted after, 3)1960s- Sexual freedom began,
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What are two factors that determine the birth rate?
1) the proportion of women who are of child bearing age (15-44) 2) How fertile women are/ number of children had,
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What is the definition of the total fertility rate?
The average number of children women have during their fertile years,
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Describe the overall trend in total fertility rate and evidence?
1964-2.95 children, 2006-1.84 children,
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What are two reasons for the decrease in total fertility rate?
1) Wide spread contraception, 2) Some women are choosing to remain childless or postponing having children
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Now, what is the avergae age for giving birth?
29/30
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What are two reasons why women are having children later?
1) Trends towards smaller family sizes, 2)Changing position of women- establishing careers before children
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What are three reasons why more children are born outside of marriage?
1) Less stigma, 2) Increase in the number of people cohabiting, 3) Secularisation- Less influence by religion and more likely to have sex outside of marriage,
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What are the six main reasons for the decline in birth rate since 1900s?
1) Changes in the position of women 2)Decline in the infant morality rate, 3)Children have become an economic liability, 4)Child centredness 5)Individualisation 6)Risk
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How has the changes to the position of women caused a decline in the birth rate?
As it has widened women's choices beyond the traditional role of housewife and mother e.g. legal equality with men, easier to divorce, improved educational opportunities- women outperform men in all levels of the education system
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How has the decline in infant morality rate caused a decline in birth rates?
As fewer babies die so fewer are conceived in order to replace those than are lost,
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What is the definition of infant morality rate?
The number of deaths among babies under one per 1000 live births per year,
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What is the trend for infant morality rate and evidence?
It has declined. 1900-15% 2007- 5 per 1000
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What are four reasons for a fall in the infant morality rate?
-Improved housing and better sanitation- flush toilets and drinking water reduces disease, 2)Better diet- more resistant to infections 3)better knowledge of hygiene, child health and welfare, 4)Since the 1950s, medical intervention- immunisations,
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Why are children now described as economic liabilities?
as until the late 19th century, children were economic assests as they could be sent out to work. Since then various legal and social change have meant children become a financial burden that has restricted family size,
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What two factors explain why children have become economic liabilites and examples of how?
1)Legal changes- Laws against child labour, compulsory schooling and raising leaving age schools means chilren are financially dependent, 2) Changing expectations- Norms have altered what children materially expect,
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How has child-centredness led to a decrease in birth rate?
As parents have fewer children so they can ivest more in terms of resources, attention and emotions in the children they do have,
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How has individualisation led to a decrease in the birth rate?
Adults have become freed from following social norms (e.g. to have children). they are now free to construct their own lives and demand a life of their own. Children place no limit on adult freedom as the number of children conceived has decreased,
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How has risk led to a decrease in the birth rate?
Marriage and cohabitation are increasingly risky and often end in separation. Children add to risks (financial and emotional) creating strain on relationships and so some people are unwilling to take the risk of having children,
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What is the predicted future trends in the birth rate from 2001 and why?
it will increase due to immigration as mothers born outside of the UK have slightly higher fertility rates
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What is the effect or consequences of changes in fertility on the family?
Smaller families are produced whcih give women greate freedom to work, creating more dual worker households,
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What is the definition on the dependency ratio?
The relationship between the size of the working population and the non-working population e.g. children and retired workers)
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What is the effect or consequence of changes in fertility to the dependency ratio in the short term?
A declining number of children reduces the 'burden of dependency' on the working population,
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What is the effect or consequence of changes in fertility to the dependency ratio in the long term?
Longer term this smaller population of children means a reduced working population and so the burden of dependency will increase on them,
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What is the effect or consequence of changes in fertility to public services and policies?
1) A lower birth rate means fewer schools, maternity services etc will be need which lowered, 2) the cost of maternity and paternity leave, 3) reduces the amount of housing needed,
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What is the definition of death rate?
Number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year,
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Describe the trend of the death rate and evidence?
Decline in death rate- 1900- 19 per 1000, 2007- 10 per 1000,
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What three dates were there anomalies where the death rate increased?
1) WW1 2) WW2 3) Influenza epidemic of 1918
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What are four reasons for the decline in the death rate?
1) social change, 2) Medical improvements 3) Increasing life expectancy 4) Ageing population,
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What sociologist argues that social changes have led to a decline in the death rate?
McKeown
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Give 7 reasons for social chanegs leading to a decline in the death rate?
1) Improved nutrition,2)Improved housing and sanitation3)Less air pollution4)Decline in number of dangerous manual occupations5)Smaller family sizes,6)better public knowledge of hygiene7)Higher standards of living,
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How has there been improved housing and better sanitation in the home?
less overcrowded conditions and damp accommodation, sewage systems, clean drinking water,
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What act led to less air pollution?
Clean Air Acts
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How does a smaller family size lead to a decrease in the death rate?
as it reduces the risk of spreading infections,
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How does McKeown view the effectiveness of medicine in redcuing death rates over social changes?
kcKeown argues that social changes are more significant,
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Since the 1950s, how has medical intervention helped?
By reducing the number of diseases with immunisations, antibiotics, improved midwifery, blood transfusions etc,
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What is the definition of life expectancy?
How long on average someone born in a given year can expect to live,
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What is the trend in life expectancy and evidence?
it is increasing. In 1900, male life expectancy: 50. In 2005, male life expectancy: 77
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What are three reasons for the increase in life expectancy?
1) Better medical care, 2) Welfare support-pensions, help with transport and fuel, 3) Better knowledge of diet and exercise,
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Where/ who has shorter life expectancies?
-The working class, -Men, -those than live in the North of the UK,
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What are some of the reasons for the working class and northerners to have lower life expectancies?
-Poverty, -Poorer housing, -More likely to smoke + unhealthy diet- fast foods as cheaper,
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What is the reason for males having a lower life expectancy?
-More dangerous occupations, - Excessive drinking, -More likely to smoke
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What is the definition of an ageing population?
Older age groups growing as a proportion of the population
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What are three reasons for an ageing population?
1) Increasing life expectancy 2) Declining infant morality 3) Declining fertility,
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What are five negatives of an ageing population?
1) Public services- Increasing demands placed on services such as health care, hosuing and transport, 2)Increase in one person pensioner households, 3) Overcrowding, 4)Increasing dependency ratio, 5) Need to change social policies
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Why is there an increase in the dependency ratio for an ageing population?
As the workign population have to provide for the non-working,
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Give examples of three social attitudes/ social policies to be changed for an ageing population?
-Increasing retirement age, 2) Providing new education and training for elderly so they can update work skills 3) Encourage the elderly to down size their house to free up welath to fund old age,
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However, what are three advantages of an ageing population?
1) Emergence of the beanpole family and intergenerational ties, 2) the role that grandparents play are increasing in terms of caring for grandchildren to allow parents to work, 3) Raising the retirement age is a benefit to the economy- contribution,
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For the social construction of old age, if it is not a fixed biological status, what is it defined by?
it is defined and shaped by society,
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How does society view old age and examples?
They view it as a problem to be dealt with e.g. meeting costs of health care and pensions,
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What is ageism and examples of how it exists?
it is the negative stereotpye of peopel based on their age. E.g. the elderly are seen as vulnerable, incompetent, irrational and a burden on society. In other cultures they are respected and gain status,
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What is the definition of migration?
The movement of people from one place to another
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What is the definition of immigration?
The movement into one area or country,
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What is the definition of emigration?
The movement out of a country or area,
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What is the definition of net migration?
The difference between the numbers immigrating and the numbers emigrating,
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From the 1900s to 1980s, what is the general immigration pattern?
numbers immigrating are lower than numbers emigrating
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Describe the immigration groups from 1900 to 1945 and why?
The largest immigrant group was Irish (economic reasons), followed by Jews (fleeing racial/political persecution)
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Describe the immigration group from 1950s?
Black Caribbean,
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Describe the immigration group from 1960s-1970s?
South Asian (India, Pakistan,Bangladesh etc)
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Various immigration laws have placed restrictions on the number of non-white immigrants. By the 1980s, how many non-whites accounted for the immigrant population?
25%
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What are two advantages of immigration?
1) More ethically diverse society- All ethnic minorities make up 8% of British poluation, 2) Greater diversity of family patterns- Asian and Bangladeshi familes are extended,
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What is a negative consequence of immigration?
Racial intolerance- leads to racism and racial attacks,
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When did Emigration start and give at least three countries people have emigrated to?
-Since 1900s, -USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa,
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What are three economic reasons for emigration?
1) Push-recessions/ unemployment 2) Pull-Higher wages and employment opportunites abroad, 3) Assisted passage schemes- costs of migration paid by government,
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between 1994 and 2004, describe the trend in emigration and immigration?
Both increased,
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What is the main reason for the increase in net migration?
Expansion of the European Union in 2004 which give citizens the right to study and work in the UK,
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What is an advantage of migrants based on the dependency ratio?
most migrants are of working age which reduces the dependency ratio,
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What is a disadvantage of migrants based on the dependency ratio?
Higher fertility rates of immigrant women adds to the dependency ratio in the short term by adding more children to the popuulation,
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However, later will this dependency ratio change and why?
Yes it will decrease as the children reach working age,
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What is the definition of internal migration?
Movements of populations within a country,
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Describe the internal migration in the 19th century?
The Industrial revolution led to movement from the largely agricultural south to the industrialised north of England, which also led to a shift from rural to urban living,
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Describe the internal migration in the 20th century?
Decline of industirs in the north led to movements to the more affluent midlands and south which led to suburbanisation- growth of large industrial areas,
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In recent years, where have most people moved back to from suburbs?
Inner city areas,
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What is the conclusion for demography?
The decline in birth and death rate are mainly due to social rather than medical improvements. Population changes due to birth, deaths and migration all have important social and economic consequences. As british pop expands, so will welfare services
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Card 2

Front

What two factors affect the population increase in size since the 1800s?

Back

births and Immigration

Card 3

Front

What two factors affect the population decrease in size since the 1800s?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the general population trend in the UK in 1801 to 2007 with evidence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why was there a population growth until the 1980s?

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