Demography

What is demography?
The study of populations and their characteristics
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What was the population of Britain in in 1801?
10.5 million
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What was the population of Britain in 1901?
37 million
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What is the current population of Britain?
65 million
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Until the 1980s the growth of the UK population was due to?
The product of natural change, which is the result of their being more births than deaths
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Since the 1980s what has most growth come from?
net migration- more immigration than emigration
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What is birth rate?
The number of live births per 1000 of the population per year
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What is the change in the number of birth rates since the 1900s?
It has declined
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What was the birth rate in England and Wales in 1900?
1.10 million per year
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What was the birth rate in England and Wales in 2014?
0.7 million per year
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What is the Total Fertility Rate (TFR)?
The average number of children women will have during their fertile years.
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What are the reasons for the decline in the birth rate since 1900?
Changes in women's position, decline in the infant mortality rate, children are now an economic liability and child centredness
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Women have?
Legal equality with men (i.e. voting)
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Increased?
Educational opportunities
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There are laws highlighting what?
Unequal pay and discrimination
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What are the changes ion attitudes based on?
Family life and women's roles
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What is there now access to?
Abortion and contraception
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What does the infant mortality rate (IMR) measure?
IMR measures the amount of children that die before their first birthday, per 1000 babies born alive, per year
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What do sociologists argue?
That a fall in IMR leads to a fall in the birth rate
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What are the reasons for this fall?
Improved housing, better sanitation and clean drinking water
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What are the reasons for this fall? 2
Better nutrition (including mothers), knowledge of hygiene, child health and welfare
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What could less married working mean?
Improved their and their baby's health.
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There are also?
Improved services, i.e. antenatal classes and postnatal classes
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Since when have children become and economic liability?
Since the late 19th Century
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What laws are there?
Banned child labour, compulsory schooling, increased school leaving age
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What are children now dependent on?
Their parents
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What are the changing norms?
Children have a right to expect material items from their parents
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The cost of what has risen?
Bringing up children
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What does the increase in child centredness mean?
That childhood is now socially constructed as a uniquely important period in the individual's life.
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What has family size changed from?
'quantity' to 'quality'
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Why do parents have fewer children?
So that they can give more attention and resources to them
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What do smaller families mean?
That women are more likely to be able to go to work, which creates the dual earner couple.
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What may wealthier couples be able to do?
Have larger families, due to being able to afford childcare which means that they can both work full time.
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What is the dependency ratio?
The relationship between the size of the working part of the population and the size of the non-working (dependent part) of the population
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What is the death rate?
The number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year
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What was the death rate in 1900?
0.61 million per year
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What was the death rate in 2012?
0.59 million per year
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How has the death rate in the UK changed since 1900?
It increased in 1961, decreased in 2001 and from 2012 it starts to increase again- showing that it fluctuates
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Why did the death rate rise between 1930 and 1940?
World War 2 and The Great Economic Depression
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What did Tranter suggest?
That over 1/3 of the death rate in 1850-1970 was due to a fall in the number of deaths from infectious diseases
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What are some examples of the infectious diseases?
Small pox, measles, diphtheria, typhoid and tuberculosis (TB)
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What was the death from infectious diseases common in?
Infants, children and young adults
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By the 1950s what had replaced infectious diseases?
'Diseases of Affluence' such as heart disease and cancers
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What are the reasons for the decline in deaths from infectious diseases?
Improved nutrition, Medical improvements, Smoking and diet, Public health measures and other social changes
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What has better nutrition increased?
The resistance to infection and the survival chances of those who become infected
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What did Mckeown (1972) argue?
That better nutrition accounted for half of the reduction in death rates, which was important in reducing the number of deaths from TB
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Before the 1950s what did medical improvements do?
Played no part in the reduction of deaths from infectious diseases
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What happened after the 19950s?
Medical knowledge, techniques and organisations helped to reduce death rates, introduction of antibiotics, immunisation, blood transfusions, midwifery and maternity services
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When was the NHS introduced?
1949
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What has bypass surgery reduced the risk of?
Heart related deaths by 1/3
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What has the banning of smoking reduced?
Death
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the population of Britain in in 1801?

Back

10.5 million

Card 3

Front

What was the population of Britain in 1901?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the current population of Britain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Until the 1980s the growth of the UK population was due to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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