Demography 3

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  • Created on: 10-03-16 21:38
Define the term 'life expectancy'.
How long, ON AVERAGE, people who are born in a given year can expect to live.
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What was the life expectancy for men and women in 1900 and 2013?
1900 = 50 (men) & 57 (women) 2013 = 79 (men) & 83 (women).
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What has been the trend in life expectancy over the past 200 years?
Increased by 2 years every DECADE.
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Which sex is likely to live longer?
Women
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Why has the gap in life expectancy between men and women narrowed?
Changes in employment (women working more) and lifestyles (women drinking & smoking more than in past).
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Why do people in the North and Scotland not live as long as people in the South?
More poverty and poorer diets up North than in South.
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Which social class is likely to have the longer life expectancy and why?`
Middle class because working class men are unskilled and have routine jobs & are 3 times more likely to die before age 65 than middle class men in managerial/professional jobs.
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What is happening to the average age of the population?
Rising
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What was the average age of the population in 1971, 2007 and projected average age for 2031?
1971 = 34.1 2007 = 39.6 2031 = 42.6
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What is the balance of young to old in the UK now?
Fewer young people (due to drop in birth rate) and more older people (due to drop in death rate). 2014 = more people over 65 than under 16 for FIRST TIME EVER.
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What are the main causes for this?
Increasing life expectancy (people more likely to live to older age), declining infant mortality (very few people die young now), declining fertility (fewer young people produced in relation to no. of older people in population).
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What are the 4 effects of an ageing population?
Greater need for public services, increase in one-person pensioner households, alteration in dependency ratio and increase in age people can claim state pension.
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Why does an ageing population affect public services?
Older people use more health+social care services so more money is spent on these areas. These means other policy changes need to occur in order to save money (e.g. increasing age people can get free public transport).
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What is a positive effect that an ageing population has on public services?
More health+social services means more jobs are created (e.g. nurses/care workers) and some old people remain healthy for many years so don't use these services.
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What is the effect of an ageing population on one-person pensioner households?
No. of pensioners living alone has increased (now make up 14% of all households). Mostly female because longer life expectancy.
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How does an ageing population affect the dependency ratio?
No. of retired people increases = increase burden of dependency. More dependent (retired) people than those working to pay for their pensions and healthcare.
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Evaluate the previous points.
However, not all old people are economically dependent as age people retire varies (1 in 10 men retire in 50s so some continue working into 70s) & increasing no. of old people is balanced by fewer children being born in terms of dependency ratio.
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What effect does the ageing population have on the age people can claim state pension?
Increases age people can claim state pension. Born 1997 = can't claim until 2065 (68 yrs) - same for men + women. In past, men could claim state pension at 65 yrs and women at 60yrs.
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What does socially constructed mean?
Made by society. Not natural & varies from culture to culture and over time.
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What do some sociologists say about how old people are viewed in the UK?
Negative attitudes to old age in Britain (e.g. burden on society).
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How do more traditional societies view old people?
Wise and respected - positive view. It's a desired goal as it shows individuals are in good health.
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What do postmodernists argue about life stages?
They've changed. Trends show children dressing like adults, later marriage and early retirement all blur boundaries of age which gives individuals greater choice whatever their age.
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What did Hunt say regarding this?
We decide our lifestyle whatever age we are. In modern society, consumption is key to individual's identity not production. Ageing population is stereotyped as sick+poor+burden on society so their significant contributions to society are overlooked.
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What are 4 significant contributions to society made by older people?
Boost to economy, social cohesion & community involvement, less crime and family support.
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How does an ageing population boost the economy?
Older people have greater spending power ('grey pound') through leisure, travel, tourism. Large share of spending in these areas is by 65-74 year olds. Contribute to paid work.
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What is the 'grey pound'?
Economic power of elderly people.
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How does an ageing population contribute to social cohesion & community involvement?
Old people contribute to informal economy (volunteering, working as counsellors, taking part in coaching/tuition, joining protest groups, campaigning, conservation etc. These are important to local communities and social cohesion.
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How does an ageing population relate to less crime?
Older people are more law abiding so areas with greater proportion of elderly people will have lower crime rates.
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How does an ageing population contribute to family support?
If both parents working in family, grandparents can play key role in unpaid childcare/babysitting/school run. Also can provide financial, practical & emotional support. Valuable contribution to economy.
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What are 8 disadvantages to an ageing population?
Growing burden of dependence+pension 'time bomb', more poverty+family hardship, loss of skills+experience from workforce, more one-person pensioner households, family stress, more work for women, housing shortage and inequality among older population
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Why does an ageing population cause a growing burden of dependence?
Growing no. of older people creates larger burden of dependence which increases dependency ratio. Working population pay higher taxes to pay for higher government spending on pensions/welfare benefits etc.
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Why does an ageing population cause a pension 'time bomb'?
Over 1/2 of welfare budget goes on pensioners and this is expected to rise (pension time bomb).
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How does an ageing population cause more poverty & family hardship?
Marxism = ageing population means poverty because in capitalist system people sell labour power in exchange for reasonable standard of living. Many leaving paid employment=substantial drop in income leading to families experiencing financial hardship
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How does an ageing population result in a loss of skills & experience from the workforce?
People retire so their skills and experience is lost and take a long time to replace with next generation of workers.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the life expectancy for men and women in 1900 and 2013?

Back

1900 = 50 (men) & 57 (women) 2013 = 79 (men) & 83 (women).

Card 3

Front

What has been the trend in life expectancy over the past 200 years?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which sex is likely to live longer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why has the gap in life expectancy between men and women narrowed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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