Demography

Demography - for the 2015 AQA Specification.

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  • Created by: shyde7
  • Created on: 21-04-16 08:47
What is the definition of demography?
A branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations.
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What is the definition of natural change?
When there are natural factors affecting the population.
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What is the definition of net migration?
The difference between the numbers immigrating and the number emigrating. This is expressed as net increase or decrease.
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What are the four factors that affect the size of the population?
Immigration, emigration, birth rate and death rate.
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What is the fertility rate?
The average number of children women will have during their fertile years - which, for statistical purposes, is between 15 and 44.
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What are the changes in the fertility rate?
More women are remaining childless, women are postponing having children, women are more focused on having careers, children are expensive.
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What is the birth rate?
The number of live births per 1000 of the population per year.
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What four factors have changed the birth rate in the past 100 years?
Changes in the position of women, Child-centredness, Decline in the infant mortality rate, Children are an economic liability.
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Name three ways in which the position of women has affected the birth rate since 1900.
Access to contraception gives women control over their fertility, Changes in attitudes towards the women's role in the family, Access to abortion gives women control over their fertility, Women have other opportunities - don't have be a housewife
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Name three ways in which child-centredness has affected the birth rate.
Because children are at the centre of the family, there has been a shift from quantity of children to quality. Childhood is seen as a time when children should be the focus of attention. Parents now have fewer children, and so focus their attention.
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How has the infant mortality rate (IMR) changed since 1900?
In 1900 the IMR for the UK was 154 - 15% of babies died before their first birthday. By 1950 the UK's IMR had fallen to 30, and in 2007 it was 5.
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Why has the infant mortality rate (IMR) changed since 1900?
Mass immunisation against disease, improved housing and better sanitation, increased medical knowledge, better nutrition for both mother and child.
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In 2003, which country has the world's highest infant mortality rate?
Liberia, at 144.
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How have children become an economic liability since 1900?
Laws have banned children from working which means they are conomically dependent, Changing norms about what children expect from parents - material goods, the cost of bringing up children has risen.
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Why has the fact children are an economic liability affected the birth rate?
Due to financial pressure, parents feel less able and willing to have a large family.
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What are the three effects of changes in the fertility rate?
The dependency ratio has increased, the family has changed to accommodate the fact women have more time, public services and policies have changed.
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What is the dependency ratio?
The ratio of working to non working people in the population.
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Why would the dependency ratio be affected by the fertility rate?
Because a fall in the number of children means a decrease in the 'burden of dependency', but less children means a smaller workforce and so the burden may increase.
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How has a gender imbalance been brought about in China in recent years?
A 1-child policy was put in place to deal with the growing population, however due to cultural values this meant many many more boys were born than girls.
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What is the death rate?
The number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year.
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What are the effects of a decreasing death rate?
An aging population, increased working age and better quality of life.
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What was the death rate in 1902?
18 per 1000
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What was the death rate in 2012?
8.9 per 1000
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What did McKeown (1972) say about improved nutrition and the death rate?
Improved nutrition accounted for up to half of the reduction in the death rate. People eat better and so have better immune systems, which reduced deaths from widespread illnesses such as TB or whooping cough.
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What are the problems with McKeown's theory?
It doesn't explain why women are living longer than men or why diseases are on the rise despite better nutrition.
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How have medical sector improvements affected the death rate?
After the 1950s, there was an introduction of antibiotics, immunisation, blood transfusions and the NHS. As well as this, surgery and other advanced services have reduced deaths from heart attacks by 1/3.
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What did Harper say about smoking and the death rate?
That the greatest fall in death rates is because people have stopped smoking.
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What is the new lifestyle epidemic in the 21st Century?
Obesity. In 2012, 1/4 of all adults in the UK were obese. This is because we have moved to an 'American' lifestyle, where we live poorly but because of improved medication we can live longer.
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What was the Clean Air Act (1952)?
A piece of legislation to reduce pollution such as smog after there were 4000 deaths in 5 days in 1952 due to smog inhalation.
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Which areas of the UK have the lowest life expectancy?
The North and Scotland, due to large amounts of poverty.
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Which type of person is 3 times more likely to die before the age of 65?
A working class male in an unskilled job.
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What did Walker (2001) say about life expectancy?
Those living in the poorest areas will die, on average, 7 years earlier.
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In 2041, what population trends are there most likely to be?
The age bracket with the largest population will be 40-49 year olds. There will be less 0-19 year old than there will be 60-79 year olds.
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What were the population trends in 2005?
The age brackets of 20-29 year olds and 40-49 year olds are the largest.
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What type of person is most likely to live in a single-person household?
Women, as women live longer than men.
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What percentage of all households are one-person pensioner households?
14%
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What is the definition of ageism?
The negative stereotyping of people on the basis of their age. For example, the elderly are portrayed as a burden to society.
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What is the definition of immigration?
Movement into an area or society.
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What is the definition of emigration?
Movement out of an area or society.
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What is a push factor?
A factor that 'pushes' people out of their country, such as war or famine.
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What is a pull factor?
A factor that attracts people to a country, for example a better quality of life or benefits.
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What was the largest immigration group between 1900 and 1945?
The Irish, followed by Eastern and central Europeans. Very few immigrants were not white.
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What was the largest immigration group in the 1950s?
Black Caribbeans.
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What was the largest immigration group in the 1960s?
South Asians (from Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka) and East Africans (from Kenya and Uganda).
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What percentage of the population was not white in 2011?
14%
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From 1900-1980, was the UK a net importer or exporter of people?
Exporter. People left for places such as America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa - mainly for economic reasons.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the definition of natural change?

Back

When there are natural factors affecting the population.

Card 3

Front

What is the definition of net migration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the four factors that affect the size of the population?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the fertility rate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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