births and immigration increase population. deaths and emmigration decresae population
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number of births minus number of deaths
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the number immegrating into a country minus number emmigrating from it
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uk population growth
37m in 1901 , 61m today, sould reach 71m by 2031. mostly due to naural change not net migration
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the birth rate
number of live births per 100 of the population per year. long term decline in birth rate - 29 in 1990 fall 60% by 2007. has been fluctuations - 3 'babby booms' after each war and in 1960s.
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the total fertility rate
average number of children a women will hve during her fertile years (age 15-44). in 1960s average = 2.95. lowest=2001=1.63. more women are remaining childless or having children later (aged 30yr)
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1. reasons for the fall in birthrate - changes in the position of women
incresed education opportunity, more womn working, changes in attitude to family & womens role, easier access to divorce, access to abortion & contraception
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2. reasons for the fall in birthrate - fall in the infant mortilaty rate
due to improved housing, sanitation & nutrition, knowledge of hygiene & childhealth, health services for mothers & children, immunisation and antibiotics
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infant mortility rate
number of infants who die before their first birthday per 1000 babies born alive per year. fallen in last century- 1900=154 2007=5. may cause a fall in birth rate (if more survive, parents will have less)
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3. reasons for the fall in birthrate - children as an economic liability
until 19th century children were an economic asset, now economic liability; laws ban child labour so children economically dependant for longer, changing norms about childrens right to a higher standard of living raises their cost.
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4. reasons for the fall in birthrate - child-centredness
childhood socially constructed as uniquely important, shift from quantity to quality. parent have fewer children giving them more attention/resources
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effects of a falling birthrate
women freer to go to work, creating dual-earner couple. the dependancy ratio-children large part of dependent population-fall in no of children reduces burden of dependancy. fewer schools & health services needed, less spent on maternity/paternity.
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the number of deaths
fairly stable since 1900 (600,000 per year). fluctuations due to world wars and 1918 flu epidemic.
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the death rate
the number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year. almost halved- 19 in 1900 to 10 in 2007
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reasons for fall in the death rate - death from infectious disease
about 3/4 of decrease. decline brought about by improved nutrition, medical improvements, public health improvements & other social changes
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McKeown - better diet accounted for halfreduction in death rate, by incresing resistance to infection.
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no part in reducing death before 1950s. medical factors inc vaccinations, antibiotics, blood transfusions & creation of NHS (1949)
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public health improvements
governments power to pass and enforce laws led to improved public health - better housing, purer drinking water, clearer air & improved sewage disposal
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other social changes
decline of more dangerous manual occupations, greater public knowledge of cause of illness and higher icome.
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how long on average a person born in a given year can expect to live. 1900=50yr males, 57yr females. 2005= 77yr males 81yr females. life expectancy rise following falling infant mortality rate.
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The ageing population
uk population is ageing. average age-1971=34, now=40, by 2031=42.6. no of over-65s overtakes no of under-16s 2014. 3 main reasons; increasing life expectancy, low infant mortality, declining fertility.
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effects of an ageing population
effects on publi services, more one-peson pensioner households, the rising dependancy ratio and ageism.
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effect on public services
older people consume more health and social care services
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more one-person pensioner households
now account for 1 in 7 households
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the rising dependency ratio
the non-working elderly need to be provided for by thos of working age. as number of retired people rises, so does dependency ratio
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age statuses are socially constructed. old age often constructed as a problem. negative stereotyping portrays the old as incompetent and a burden. contrasts traditional society where ageing brings higher status.
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Hirsch - Policy implications of an ageing population
argues we will need new policies to finance a longer old age. could be done by by paying more taxes or raising retirement age.
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the movement of people. can be internal (within a country) or international. affects size and age structure of the population. until the 1980s, mor people left the UK than entered.
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from 1900-1940 largest immigrant groups were irish, european jews & people of british decent from Canada and the USA. mainly for economic reasons
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white and non-white immigrants
1950-70s non-white immigrants began to come from the cribbean, africa & south asia. 2001-minority ethnic groups made up 7.9% of popultion.
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immigration and nationality acts
1962-1990 placed severe restrictions on non-white immigration. 1980s- non-whites made up barely 1 quater of immigrants. mainly white countries of the EU became chief source of immigrants.
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main reasons for emmigration have been economic. push factors-unemployment and economic recession. pull factors-higher wges, better opportunities.
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the impact of migration on UK population structure
population size is growing. net migration is high (260,000 in 2014) more immigrants (583,000) than emigrants (323,000). there is a natural increase with births exceeding deaths. births to UK mothers remains low.
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the impact of migration on age structure
lowers the average age of the population directly and indirectly. directly-immigrants are generally younger. indirectly-being younger, immigrants are more fertile and thus produce more babies.
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impact of migration on the dependancy ratio
immigrats likely to be of working age (lowering dependancy ratio), likely to have mre children due to young age. the longer a group is settled in the counrty, the closer their fertility rate comes to the national average.
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globalisation and migration
globilisation=the idea barriers between societies are disappearing & people are becoming increasingly interconected across national boundaries. is the result of many processes including the growth of communication systems and global media.
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trends in global migration - acceleration
a speeding up of the rate of migration. 2000-13 international migration increased by 33%to reach 232million/3.2% of the worlds population
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trends in global migration - differentiation
there are many types of migrant, including; permenant settlers, temporary workers, spouses and forced migrants. some have legal entitlement others enter without permission.
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differentiation - super-diversity
Vertovec (2007). since 1990s globalisation led to super-diversity. migrants now come from a wider range of countries, individuals differ i terms of legal status eg as citizen or spouses, culture or religion.
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Cohen - 3 class types between migrant
citizens (with full citiznship rights- harder to access sinse 1970s) denizens (privileged foreign nationals welcomes by the state) helots (the most exploited group, regarded as disposible units of labour power.
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the feminism of migration
in the past most migrants were men, now almost 1/2 global migrants are female. been called the globalisation of the gender division of labour-women migrants find they are fitted into patriarchal stereotypes about womens roles as carers.
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the feminism of migration - Ehrenreich & Hochschild
observe that care work, domestic work and sex work in western countries is increasingly done by women from poor countries. result of several trends.
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Ehrenreich & Hochschild - trends of fiminisation of migration
expansion of service occupations led to increasing demand for female labour, western women joined the labour force & are less willing to perform domestic labour, western men unwilling to perform domestic labour, state failure of adquate childcare
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migrants may develop hybrid identities made up of 2 or more sources
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second generation Bangladeshi Muslims in britain created hierarchal identities, saw themselves as muslim 1st, then Bengali, then British.
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Eriksen - transnational identities
migrants less likely to see themselves as belnging completely to one culture, so develop transnational idetities.
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the politicisation of migration
state have policies to that seek to control immigration, absorb migrants into society and deal with increased ethnic and cultural diversity. immigration policies recenty linked to nationl security & anti-terrorism
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the politicisation of migration - assimilationism
the first state policy approach to immigration. aimed to encourage immigrants to adopt the language, values and culture of the host culture. face the problem that transnational migrants with hybrid identities may be unwilling to bondon thier culture
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the politicisation of migration - multiculturalism
accepts migrants may wish to retain a separate cultural identity. acceptance may be limited to superficial aspects of cultural diversity
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Eriksen - shallow diversity and deep diversity
shallow diersity-things that re acceptable to the state. deep diversity-things that are not aceptable to the state
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Other cards in this set
number of births minus number of deaths
uk population growth
the birth rate