Demography

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  • Created on: 10-03-16 18:23
What is demography?
The study of populations and their characteristics.
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Define the term 'birth rate'.
Number of LIVE births PER 1000 of the population PER YEAR.
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What name is given to sudden increases in birth rates?
Baby boom
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When were the 3 baby booms?
After the two World Wars and in the 1960s.
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Why was there a baby boom after each of the World Wars?
Servicemen returned home and started families - this has been postponed because of the war.
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Why was there a baby boom in the 1960s?
The economy was healthy so people were prosperous.
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Overall, what has been the general trend in birth rate from the 1900s until now?
General decline
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What 2 factors affect the birth rate?
No. of women of childbearing age (15-44yrs) & no. of children women have.
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Define the term 'total fertility rate'.
The average no. of children women have in their fertile years (15-44yrs).
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What has been the general trend in TFR?
General decline
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Name 4 reasons for the decline in the birth rate/TFR.
Changes in the position of women, decline in infant mortality rate, children becoming economic liabilities and child centeredness.
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Why has the changing position of women caused a decline in the birth rate/TFR?
Easier access to divorce, abortion+contraception (greater control over fertility)+changes in attitudes to family life/role of women/greater opportunities for women mean women are choosing to have children later/not at all – putting careers first.
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Define the term 'infant mortality rate'.
Number of infants that die BEFORE their 1ST BIRTHDAY PER 1000 babies born ALIVE PER YEAR.
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Why has the IMR fallen?
Improved housing, better sanitation, better nutrition, better hygiene, improved antenatal+postnatal clinics and immunisations against childhood diseases like whooping cough and measles.
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What was the IMR in the UK in the 1900s, 1950s and then in 2012?
1900s = 154 (15% of babies died before age of 1) - 1950s = 30 - 2012 = 4.
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Why has a decline in the IMR caused a decline in the birth rate/TFR?
There are less births because people don't need replacement babies.
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Explain why children becoming economic liabilities has caused a decline in the birth rate/TFR.
In the past, children used to be economic assets (used to make money) as they could work - now laws ban child labour so parents are spending money on children rather than earning from them (economic liability).
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What did Hirst say about the cost of children and in what year was this said?
Hirst 2014 - each child costs approx. £154,000 by age of 18 (so people can't afford to have lots of children).
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Why has child centeredness caused a decline in the birth rate/TFR?
Childhood is now seen as a 'special' period by parents so parents are having fewer children in order to spend more time and money on the children they have + give them more attention.
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Briefly describe the previous and thus the future trends in birth rates.
Office for National Statistics = 2009 0.2 % fall in live births from 708,711 in 2008 to 706, 248 in 2009. Predicts no. of births will remain constant and period up to 2041 = 800,000 per year.
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What are 3 effects of these changes in fertility?
Smaller families, alteration in dependency ratio and changes in public services/policies.
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Why will the changes in birth rate affect the family?
Smaller families are easier to handle so women can work – creates dual earner couples. Financially better off couples might be able to afford larger families because can afford childcare. Average family size decreased as birth rate dropped.
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What is the dependency ratio?
The relationship between the size of the working/productive part of population and size of non-working/dependent part of population (e.g. children, pensioners+unemployed). Earnings/savings/taxes of working part supports dependent part.
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What is the effect of the change in birth rate on the dependency ratio?
Short term = drop in births results in smaller burden of dependency on working population. Long term = fewer children results in fewer future workers so greater burden of dependency as more pensioners than those in work.
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What is the effect of the change in birth rate on public services and policies?
Lower birth rates=less schools+child health services needed+less housing needed. However, many decisions are political so for example instead of reducing no. of schools if drop in birth rate, government could decide to have smaller class sizes.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define the term 'birth rate'.

Back

Number of LIVE births PER 1000 of the population PER YEAR.

Card 3

Front

What name is given to sudden increases in birth rates?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When were the 3 baby booms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why was there a baby boom after each of the World Wars?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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