Democracy and participation- Key concepts

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Liberal democracy
Free and fair elections, belief in importance of certain key rights and responsibilities. Extend the right to vote (the franchise) widely among citizens. Guarantee freedom of speech.Allow people to assemble and petition for redress of grievances.
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Totalitarian democracy
Where citizens of a given state are granted the right to vote but are unable to choose between candidates representing parties other than the one in power. 'Top down'- citizens not allowed any real input into policy making process.
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Majoritarian democracy
Where government is based on the majority support of those who inhabit a given territory. Has potential to see minorities marginalised and excluded from decision making process.
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Consensual democracy
Where conscious effort to reach out in a more inclusive way to all groups within a territory as opposed to simply seeking support of majority.
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Parliamentary democracy
Where the executive part of government is drawn from the elected legislature and is, in turn, accountable to it.
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Consultative or Participatory democracy
Where a more conventional representative democracy incorporates elements of direct democracy- such as public enquiries, referendums, citizens assemblies or e democracy- with a view to engaging the broader citizenry in the policy making process.
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Pluralist democracy
A system of government that encourages participation and allows for free and fair competition between competing interests.
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Political culture
Ideas, beliefs and attitudes that shape political behaviour within a given area. It describes the way in which citizens collectively view the political system and their status and role within it.
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Legitimacy
The legal right or authority to exercise power. A government claims legitimacy as a result of the mandate it secures at a general election.
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Mandate
The right of the governing party to pursue the policies it sets out in its general election manifesto.
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The doctrine of the mandate
Gives the governing party the authority to pursue its stated policies but does not require it to do so or prevent it from introducing proposals not included in its manifesto.
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1997 General Election Manifesto
New Labour promised both to remove rights of hereditary peers to sit and vote in House of Lords and to move towards a more democratic and more representative second chamber. It largely delivered on the first of these pledges- House of Lords Act 1999
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Differential turnout
Where the national turnout figure recorded at a given election masks differences in turnout by constituency or by region.
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Factors accounting for differential turnout
1) How marginal and individual seat is 2) The electoral system in operation 3) Local/National Issues and controversies 4) The 'intensity' of the campaign 5) Media attention
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Card 2

Front

Where citizens of a given state are granted the right to vote but are unable to choose between candidates representing parties other than the one in power. 'Top down'- citizens not allowed any real input into policy making process.

Back

Totalitarian democracy

Card 3

Front

Where government is based on the majority support of those who inhabit a given territory. Has potential to see minorities marginalised and excluded from decision making process.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where conscious effort to reach out in a more inclusive way to all groups within a territory as opposed to simply seeking support of majority.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where the executive part of government is drawn from the elected legislature and is, in turn, accountable to it.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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