Dement and Kleitman

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What approach does Dement and Kleitman belong to?
The Physiological Approach.
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What is the aim of Dement and Kleitman?
The study aimed to investigate the relationship (correlation) between eye movements and dreaming to demonstrate that dreaming and REM are related.
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What is the first hypothesis of Dement and Kleitman's study?
There will be a significant association between REM and Dreaming.
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What is the second hypothesis of Dement and Kleitman's study?
There will be a significant positive correlation between estimates of time spent dreaming, and REM.
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What is the third hypothesis of Dement and Kleitman's study?
There will be significant association with the pattern of eye movement and context of dreams.
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How long does each sleep cycle last?
90 minutes.
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What does an Electroencephalogram measure?
Brain activity in electrical waves.
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What does an Electro-Oculogram measure?
Eye movements and patterns of eye movements.
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How many sleep cycles are gone through in a night?
5-7 times.
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How many stages are in a sleep cycle?
Five stages.
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What are the 5 stages in a sleep cycle?
Stage 1, 2, 3, 4 which are all Non Rem. After stage 4, the sleeper goes back to stage 2, where Stage 5 REM sleep occurs.
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What Research method was used?
A Lab experiment with observations.
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How else was data gathered in Dement and Kleitman's study?
Via self reports and correlations.
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How many P's were in Dement and Kleitman's study and what sex were they?
9 Ps, 7 male and 2 female.
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Where was the sample from in Dement and Kleitman's study?
Chicago, USA.
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What was the IV?
Whether awakening in REm or NREM
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What were the 3 DV's?
Where they dreaming, yes or no, context of the dreams and time estimates of dreams 5/15 mins.
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Describe the first part of the basic procedure of Dement and Kleitman's study
Instructed to eat normally, avoid caffeine or alcohol on the day of experiment. Two or more elctrodes were attatched near the eyes via EOG, and two or more electrodes were attatched to the scalp via EEG. It ran all night.
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Describe the second part of the basis procedure of Dement and Kleitman's study
Went to bed in a quiet, dark room and slept alone. They were woken during the night at various times by a ordinary door bell near their bed. They then spoke into a tape recorder and were asked whether they'd been dreaming, context, time estimate 5/15
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How was Hypothesis 3 tested in the procedure in Dement and Kleitman's study?
Woken up as soon as one of four patterns were recorded for a minute. Vertical eye movement up and down, horizontal eye movements, left to right, both vertical and horizontal eye movements, or very little to no eye movement.
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Participants were only record as having a dream if they could recall it...
Coherently and relatively detailed.
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Experimenter didn't interact to avoid experimenter affects, but when did they go in?
To question P's on a particular point of a dream.
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To avoid any untentionally patterns of the five P's, they were woken in one of four ways, what were these?
1. 2 were woken randomly. 2. 1 during 3 Rem periods and 3 NREM periods. 3. One was told they'd be woken during REM but was woken in NREM too. 4. One was woken at experimenters whim.
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How many were studied intensively and for how long?
5 of the P's and for 6-17 nights.
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How long was the study conducted for and how many awakenings occurred?
61 nights and 351 awakenings.
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Give 2 findings which support hypothesis 1 in Dement and Kleitman's study
1. Rem sleep is associated with dreaming (152 dreams recalled in REM. 2. NREM sleep is associated with non-dreaming (149 no dream recalls in NREM).
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Give a finding of hypothesis 2 in Dement and Kleitman's study?
Participants could accurately recall dream duration apart from one who could only recall end of the dream. (45/51 correct estimates after 5 mins, and 47/60 for 10 minutes of REM)
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Give three findings of Hypothesis 3 in Dement and Kleitman's study?
1;. With vertical eye movements a P dreamt of climbing a ladder and looking up and down. 2. With vertical eye movements one P dreamt of shooting basketballs. 3. When there was little to no eye movement, 21 p's reported watching something.
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Is Dement and Kleitman's study a snapshot or longitudinal?
Snapshot.
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Give 2 conclusions of Dement and Kleitman's study?
1. REM sleep is associated with Dreaming more than NREM. 2. Strong correlation between dream recall and length of time in REM suggesting we dream in real time.
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Card 2

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What is the aim of Dement and Kleitman?

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The study aimed to investigate the relationship (correlation) between eye movements and dreaming to demonstrate that dreaming and REM are related.

Card 3

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What is the first hypothesis of Dement and Kleitman's study?

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Card 4

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What is the second hypothesis of Dement and Kleitman's study?

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Card 5

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What is the third hypothesis of Dement and Kleitman's study?

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