Definitions for key developmental terms

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  • Created by: Dina
  • Created on: 24-05-15 18:08
What is a cross-sectional study?
A study that compares children of different ages usually at the same time that share specific characteristics, this aims to test continuity
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What is a longitudinal study design?
A design that compares participants to themselves over a long period if time, watching development unfold
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What is a microgenetic design?
A design that measures the same children over a short concentrated period of time
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What is intentional communication?
Intentional communication is the ability to manipulate people via communication
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What does the preformation theory of development entail and who proposed it?
It was proposed by Hartsoeker who suggested, from looking at some sperm under a microscope, that it was a tiny human form that was simply a matter of growth. He posited the womb as an oven
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What does the Great Chain of Being idea suggest and who put it forward?
Aristotle suggested that species are fixed and arranged hierarchically
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What does the Recapitulation Theory propose?
It proposes that ontogeny recapitulates evolutionary history, animals step off at different stages in development in order to be born at the appropriate stage to match with their species
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What occurs in the Germinal period of development?
The sperm and egg form a zygote. This forms morula cells, which multiply within the first 4 days of conception and become smaller and smaller without differentiating. This, essentially, forms a ball of identical stem cells. By day 5, blastocysts form
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What occurs in the period of the Embryo?
The blastocyst differentiates into 3 different kinds of tissue: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. neural tube folds into start of brain and spinal cord
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What occurs in the period of the fetus?
Organs become more differentiated, responses to stimulation, psychological entity, touch, hearing and movement
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What are teratogens?
Teratogens are substances that affect development over gestation (e.g. alcohol) - there are windows of vulnerability for certain teratogens
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What is the fetal learning study demonstrating (DeCasper & Spence)?
That infants preferred familiar stories that were heard in the womb than unfamiliar stories. Tested used HAS technique
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What is the conventional view of motor development?
major developments before birth as a matter of maturation under genetic control (with little role given to environmental processes)
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What is the Babinski reflex?
If the bottom of the foot is stroked, the big toe moves upwards and the other toes fan out
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What is the ankle clonus reflex?
If you break the tone at the knee, the toe snaps into the leg
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What is the walking reflex?
If a baby is held up or at a certain age they move their legs forwards and back as if walking, if disappeared it can reappear when baby is placed in water
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What is auditory tracking?
When a rattle is moved from one ear to the other and the baby turns it's head
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What is visual tracking?
When a baby follows an engaging face from one place to another
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What is the moro reflex?
When you let go of the baby's head support, it's arms flail out momentarily then go back in
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What is the rooting reflex?
A newborn infant will turn it's head towards anything or make sucking motions with the mouth if you stroke it's cheek or mouth
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What does endothermy mean?
Warm-blooded, refers to mammals and their necessity for high energy foods and thermoregulatory adaptations (e.g. fur)
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What does precocious mean?
Advanced
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What does vestigial mean?
Vestigial means partially or wholly lost
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What does altricial mean?
Slowly developing
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What are glia?
Cells that provide structural support, maintenance and insulation for neuronal axons with myelin sheaths
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What is myelination?
Myelination is the formation of fatty sheaths around axons which speeds up connections between neurons
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What is synaptogenesis?
It is the formation of new connections between axons and engages in a pruning process
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Card 2

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What is a longitudinal study design?

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A design that compares participants to themselves over a long period if time, watching development unfold

Card 3

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What is a microgenetic design?

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Card 4

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What is intentional communication?

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Card 5

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What does the preformation theory of development entail and who proposed it?

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