Definitions

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  • Created by: Marmite66
  • Created on: 08-12-13 09:41
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The place where the river starts, usually up in the mountains
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Mouth
The place where the river enters the sea
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Tributary
A river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake
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Confluence
the junction of two rivers, especially rivers of approximately equal width
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Watershed
A ridge of high land that forms the boundary between two adjacent river basins
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Drainage Basin
A area of land that is drained by a main river and its tributaries
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Evapotranspiration
The combined loss of water from water surfaces and soil (evaporation) and vegetation (transpiration)
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Condensation
Change of state where gas becomes liquid by cooling
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Precipitation
The deposition of atmospheric moisture to the Earth's surface as rain, hail, sleet or snow
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Interception
When water is prevented from falling directly to the ground, e.g. by the leaves on trees
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Surface run-off (overland flow)
The flow of water over the surface
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Infiltration
The movement of water from the ground surface into the soil
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Through flow
The flow of water through soil
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Percolation
A flow in the water cycle. The movement of water out of the soil and into the rocks below.
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Groundwater flow
The flow of water through rocks
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Water table
The upper limit of the zone of saturation found in porous or permeable rock, or soil
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Saturated soil
When the pores spaces in the soil are full or water. This causes the water table to rise and puddles to form.
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Storm hydrographs
Used to measure a river's flow and show the change in river discharge over a short period of time after a storm
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Peak rainfall
The hour of greatest rainfall during a storm
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Peak discharge
The time of maximum discharge by the river
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Lag time
The period between peak rainfall and peak discharge
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Falling limb
The period of time when the rivers discharge is falling
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normal flow
The base flow of the river
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Rising limb
The period of rising river discharge following a period of rainfall
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Erosion
The wearing away of rocks and soil along the river bed and banks
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Transportation
The movement of sediment along a river
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Deposition
The dropping of sediment or material
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Wetted perimeter
Where water comes into contact with the river bed or banks
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Abrasion/Corraision
The process by which the bed and banks are worn down by the river's load. The river throws these particles against the bed and banks, sometimes at high velocity.
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Hydrolic action
This process involves the force of the water against the bed and banks
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Corrosion
The chemical action of the river water. The acids in the water slowly dissolve the bed and banks
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Attrition
Material (the load) carried by the river bump into each other and so are smoothed and broken down into smaller particles.
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Flood
A period of high discharge when a river overflows it's banks
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Hard engineering
Involves the building of structures e.g. dams
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Soft engineering
Using natural drainage basin procedures to reduce flooding
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Flood frequency
How often flooding will happen
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The place where the river enters the sea

Back

Mouth

Card 3

Front

A river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the junction of two rivers, especially rivers of approximately equal width

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A ridge of high land that forms the boundary between two adjacent river basins

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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