Definitions 3

Machine code instruction
A binary code that a machine can understand and execute
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Compiled high level language program
A program translated into machine code before it is executed on a digital computer
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Opcode
The part of a machine code instruction that denotes the basic machine operation e.g. ADD
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Operand
The part of the machine code that represents a single item of binary data or the address of a single item of binary data
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Instruction set
The set of bit patterns or binary codes for the machine operations that a processor has been designed to perform
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Optical mark reader
A device that optically senses marks placed in predefined positions on a form e.g. lottery ticket
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RFID reader
Radio frequency identification; Contactless sensors used in shops to avoid theft and
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Graphics tablet
Allows user to draw a graphic that is inputted into a computer. Like a pencil and paper
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Cathode ray tube
A type of visual display unit that produces one line at a time.
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Electronic paper
Flexible paper thin displays which create images using tiny coloured beads that move or rotate in response to an electric field, developed to E Ink and Xerox
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Bitmap fonts
When a font is bitmapped. an become blocky when they are scaled
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TrueType and PostScript fonts
Computer uses the geometric description of the font to simply draw an outline shape at a specific size then fills it with ink to create the character.
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Plotter
Output device that moves a pen across paper in a continuous movement so that a two dimensional drawing can be made
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Track
One of the concentric rings on a platter of a hard disk
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Sector
A subdivision of a track
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Disk block
The smallest unit of transfer between a computer and a disk; a disk sector
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USB
Universal serial bus; allows peripherals to be connected using a standard interface socket
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Access time
The time from the start of one storage device access to the time when the next access can be started
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Software
Consists of sequences of instructions called programs that can be understood and executed by hardware
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Assembler
Translates assembly language program into machine code
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Compiler
Translates high level language code into object code
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Interpreter
Analyses and executes a high level language program a line at a time
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Bespoke software
Written for a customer's specific need
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General purpose software
Software that can be used for many different tasks
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Special purpose software
Software designed to support one specific task
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First generation languages
Machine code that consists entirely of 1s and 0s (low level language)
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Second generation lanuages
Assembly language; uses same structures and instruction set as the machine language is based on but uses mnemonics instead of numbers (low level language)
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Third generation languages (Procedural languages)
Imperative language (like first and second gen) so is executed in a programmer defined sequence. One statement in a third generation language is translated into several machine code statements. Invented to make it easier to solve problems using comps
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Fourth generation languages
Declaritive programming languages; Define what is to be computed rather than how the computation is to be done. You must declare facts that are processed by a standard algorithm to produce the desired result
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A program translated into machine code before it is executed on a digital computer

Back

Compiled high level language program

Card 3

Front

The part of a machine code instruction that denotes the basic machine operation e.g. ADD

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The part of the machine code that represents a single item of binary data or the address of a single item of binary data

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The set of bit patterns or binary codes for the machine operations that a processor has been designed to perform

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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