Definitions for Unit 1: Epistemology

A set of definitions for all technical philosophical language in AQA AS Epistemology.

  • Created by: aray01
  • Created on: 01-02-17 12:46
A posteriori knowledge
Propositional knowledge aquired/justifiable through sense experience. Contingently true or false
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A priori knowledge
Propositional knowledge aquired/justifiable indepenently of experience. Necesssarily true or false.
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Ability knowledge
'Know-how'. Animals can have this. Cannot be expressed through language.
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Aqaintance knowledge
'Knowing of'. Cannot be expressed through language. Some consider it base of all empirical knowledge.
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Propositional knowledge
"S knows that p" is propostional knowledge. Can be expressed through language.
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Sufficient conditions
when every criterion is met; when all necessary conditions are fulfilled. Refers to definitons of knowledge
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Sense-data
the immediate objects of perception (IR); a mind-dependent respresentation of a mind-independent object; a sense impression.
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Matters of fact:
Propositions describing the state of affairs in the world, as outlined by Hume (synthetic a posteriori in Kantian terms). Contingent & known through sense experience/induction.
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Synthetic proposition
One which is true or false depending on how the world is; contingent.
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(Concept) Innatism
The claim that some concepts are innate to people; they are deduced through reason rather than derived from experience
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Reliablism
A definition of knowledge which replaces the justificiation clause with a reliable method. K=T+B+RELIABLE METHOD.
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physical objects
objects which and mind-independent; existing in the external world; made of physical matter.
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Copy principal (Humean)
The claim that simple ideas are less vivid copies of sense impressions.
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The argument from illusion
Challenges DR: We perceive an object with property F, which in reality it does not have. Property F is therefore sense data. Illusions can be subjectively indistinguishabe from veridical perception. Therefore DR is flawed
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Proposition
"s knows that P"; a knowledge claim; description of a state of affairs.
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Hume's Fork:
Part of Hume's epistemology in which he separates relations of ideas (deductive;tautological) and matters of fact (inductive;synthetic)
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Solipsism
The view that only oneself and one's mind exists. There are no other mind-independent people or external world.
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Mind-independent
Not dependent on any mind for existence nor definiton; existing in the external world.
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Tabula Rasa
The latin term for 'blank slate'; Locke's first principal for concept empiricism
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Indirect realism
Theory of perception claiming we have only indirect acess to the external world; We percive mind-independent objects indirectly, via sense data which are caused by & represent physical objects.
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Argument from perceptual variation
Challenges DR. People percieve objects differently, ergo there is no veridical perception. We percieve apparent properties (sense-data), ergo physical objects are percieved indirectly.
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Veridical
A proposition that is true; an experience representing the world as it truly is.
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Necessary Condition
One without which a proposition cannot be true. E.g a man must be unmarried in order to be a bachelor.
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Impression
An immediate object of perception: Either an impression of sensation (outer impression) or an impression of reflection (inner impression). Humean epistemology
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Complex idea
An idea construted from simple ideas.Compounded by the imagination through transposition, augmentation, or diminution
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No false lemmas
A theory of knowledge: J+T_+B=K. An additon to the tripartite theory. Requires that none of the conditons has been met through a false inference.
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Analytic
A proposition that is true/false in virtue of the meaning of the words. A proposition in which the predicate is implicit in the subject.
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Cartesian circle
A circular flaw in Descartes' ontological argument. He cannot rely on clear and disinct ideas before proving the existence of God, yet cannot prove the existence of God without relying on clear and distinct ideas.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Propositional knowledge aquired/justifiable indepenently of experience. Necesssarily true or false.

Back

A priori knowledge

Card 3

Front

'Know-how'. Animals can have this. Cannot be expressed through language.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

'Knowing of'. Cannot be expressed through language. Some consider it base of all empirical knowledge.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

"S knows that p" is propostional knowledge. Can be expressed through language.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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