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Force of Attraction between molecules of two different substances.
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An attractive between substances or particles.
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Small air sacs in the lungs.
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Describes a result/date point that does not appear to fit the pattern of the other results. It may be assumed to be anomalous if the experimeter has made an error or if the apparatus used is not suitable for the measurements being taken.
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Molecules producded by microorganisms that kill or limit the growth of other microrganisms.
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Protein molecules released by the immune system in resonse to an antigen.
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A foreign molecule(which may be a protein ot glycoprotein) that can provoke an immune response. Organisms have antigens on their plasma membranes.
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Asexual reproduction
The production of genetically identical new organisms by a single ‘parent’ organism.
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Atrioventricular node (AVN)
A patch of tissue in the septum of the heart that conducts the electrical stimulus from the atria in the heart through to the Purkyne fibres.
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Atrioventricular valves
Valves between the atria and ventricles that prevent backflow of blood.
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One of the upper chambers in the heart.
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Bohr shift / Bohr effect
The effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen.
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Airways in the lungs that lead from the trachea to the bronchioles.
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Airways in the lungs that lead from the bronchi to the alveoli.
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A chemical system that resists changes in pH by maintaining a constant level of hydrogen ions in solution. Certain chemicals dissolved in the solution are responsible for this
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The molecule resulting from combination of carbon dioxide and haemoglobin
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Cardiac cycle
The sequence of events making up one heartbeat.
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Cardiac muscle
The muscle found in the heart. It has its own intrinsic heartbeat (it is myogenic).
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Carrier protein
A protein found in membranes, which is capable of carrying a specific molecule or ion through the membrane by active transport.
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A flexible, slightly elastic connective tissue.
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Cartilage ring
A flexible ring of cartilage that holds the airways open.
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Casparian *****
A ***** of waterproof material (suberin) in the cell walls of root endodermis cells. It blocks the apoplast pathway.
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Cell signalling
Processes that lead to communication and coordination between cells. Hormones binding to their receptors on the cell surface membrane are an example.
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A carbohydrate polymer (of β-glucose) that forms plant cell walls.
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An organelle from which the spindle fibres develop during cell division in animal cells
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The region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined together, and where the spindle fibre attaches during cell division.
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Channel protein
A protein pore that spans a membrane, through which very small ions and water soluble molecules may pass.
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Chloride shift
The movement of chloride ions into red blood cells to balance the loss of hydrogencarbonate ions
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Pigments found in chloroplasts of plant (and some protoctist) cells. Each molecule consists of a hydrocarbon tail and a porphyrin ring head with a magnesium atom. Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light, trapping the energy, and reflects green light
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An organelle found in plants, which contains chlorophyll and is responsible for photosynthetic activity in the plant.
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A lipid molecule (not a triglyceride) found in all cell membranes and involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones.
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Material staining dark red in the nucleus during interphase of mitosis and meiosis. It consists of nucleic acids and proteins. Chromatin condenses into chromosomes during prophase of nucler division
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A linear DNA molecule wrapped around histone proteins found in the nucleus. Chromosomes become visible in prophase of cell division.
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Short extensions of eukaryotic cells, typically 2–10 µm long and 0.03 µm in diameter. They may be used for locomotion or to move fluids or mucus over a surface, for example in the mammalian respiratory tract
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Ciliated epithelium
Epithelial cells that have cilia on their cell surface.
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The attraction between water molecules due to hydrogen bonding.
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A structural fibrous protein found in connective tissue, bones, skin and cartilage. It accounts for 30% of body protein.
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Companion cell
A cell in the phloem involved in actively loading sucrose into the sieve tube elements. The companion cell is closely associated with a phloem sieve element, to which it is linked by many plasmodesmata.
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Concentration Gradient
The difference in Concentration of two substances.
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Coronary arteries
Arteries that carry blood to the heart muscle.
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The folds found in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. Stalked particles containing ATP synthase are found on cristae.
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The period when the heart muscle in the ventricles is relaxing and blood pressure is at its lowest.
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The development and changes seen in cells as they mature to form specialised cells
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The net movement of molecules or ions in a gas or liquid from an area of high concentration to an area where they are less concentrated.
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The breakdown of a molecule into two molecules, atoms or ions. For example, the release of oxygen from oxyhaemoglobin
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Dissociation curve (oxyhaemoglobin)
The curve on a graph showing the proportion of haemoglobin that is saturated with oxygen at different oxygen tensions.
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Elastic fibres
Long fibres of the protein elastin that have the ability to stretch and recoil.
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Elastic tissue
Tissue containing the protein elastin, which is able to stretch and recoil.
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The process of taking materials into a cell by surrounding them with part of the plasma membrane, which then pinches off to form a vesicle inside the cell. This is an active process requiring ATP.
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
A series of membrane-bound, flattened sacs extending from the outer nuclear membrane through the cytoplasm. It may appear rough (rough ER) when ribosomes are attached to the outer surface, and it is involved with synthesis of proteins.
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Outer layer(s) of cells of a multicellular organism. Plants have a single layer surrounding the tissues of roots, stems and leaves. Invertebrates have an epidermis made of a single layer of cells that secrete a cuticle. Vertebrate (including mammals)
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The process of removing materials from the cell by fusing vesicles containing the material with the plasma membrane (cell surface membrane).
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Exchange surface
A specialised area adapted to make it easier for molecules to cross from one side of the surface to the other.
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Facilitated diffusion
The passive movement of molecules across membranes down their concentration gradient, which is aided by transport (carrier) protein molecules. No metabolic energy is required.
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A term used to describe plant tissue where the cells have lost turgor and are not firm.
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Fluid mosaic (model)
The model of cell membrane structure proposed by Singer and Nicholson – a phospholipid bilayer with proteins ‘floating’ in it.
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Gaseous Exchange
The movement of gases by diffusion across a barrier such as the atreous wall.
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Globular proteins
Proteins with relatively spherical molecules, soluble in water, often having metabolic roles in organisms.
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A lipid with carbohydrate molecules attached.
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A protein with carbohydrate molecules attached.
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Goblet Cells
Mucus-secreting cells in epithelial tissue.
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Golgi Body
Membrane-bound organelle in eukaryote cells. its function are: to modify and package proteins. And to also make lysosomes in plant cells to secreate carbohydrates that make up the cell walls.
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Guard Cells
In pairs, these form the stomatal pore in the epidermis plants. They control the opening and closing of the pore by changes in their turgidty.
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The PROTEIN that carries oxygen in the red blood cells.
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Haemoglobinic acid
The acid produced when haemoglbin takes up hydrogen ions.
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When animals cells are placed in a solution of higher water potential and water enters the cells by osomosis.
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A cell or organism that has one set of chromosomes/ one copy of each chromosome.
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Hydrostatic Pressure
Pressure created by a fluid pushing against the sides of a container.
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Intercostal Muscles
Muscles responsible for moving the rib cage during breathing.
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A water proofing substance that impregrenates the walls of the xylem tissue. Ligin gives wood to its strength.
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A cavity surrounded by a cell wall in cells, such as xylem vessels, which have lost their cell contents. Also used for the central cavities of blood vessels.
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A type of white blood cell activated as part of the immune system.
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The number of times greater an image is than the object.
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Nuclear Division that results in the formations of the cells containing half the number of chromosomes of the adult cell,
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Meristem Cells
Undifferentiated plant cells capable of rapid cell division.
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Messenger RNA (mRNA)
A type of RNA plynucleotide involved in protein synthesis. Carries the information coding for a plypeptide from the nucleus to the ribsomes in the cytoplasm.
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Nuclear Division that results in the formations of cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell.
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A repitatoy pigment (protein) with a higher affinity for oxygen than haemoglobin.
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Phagocytic White blood cells.They Engluf and digest bacteria. Neutrophils have a many-lobed nucleus, and a granular cytoplasm due to the large numbers of lysosomes present.
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A collection of tissues that work together to perform a specific overall function or set of functions within a multicellular organism.
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The movement of water molecules from a region of high water potential to a region of low water potential across a partially permeable membrane.
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Oxygen tension
The amount of oxygen in the air expressed as the pressure created by the presence of oxygen, expressed in kilopascals (kPa)
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Card 2


An attractive between substances or particles.



Card 3


Small air sacs in the lungs.


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Card 4


Describes a result/date point that does not appear to fit the pattern of the other results. It may be assumed to be anomalous if the experimeter has made an error or if the apparatus used is not suitable for the measurements being taken.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Molecules producded by microorganisms that kill or limit the growth of other microrganisms.


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