Decision Making of Juries

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What is a jury?
a group of 12 ordinary people used to judge a case in court, they have to give the ultimate verdict of whether someone is guilty or not
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What are the three levels of conformity in order of shallowest to deepest?
compliance- private and public views are different, identification- conforming with a role because you identify with it & internalisation- public and private views change
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What influences does the majority encourage?
informational social influence- need to be right, and normative social influence- need to be liked (strong amongst strangers e.g. jury)
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What did Smith and Mackie (1995) say about majority influence?
works in three ways: 1. deeper discussions because more people are discussing it, 2. varied opinions & 3. greater confidence
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What evidence did Moscovici find for minority influence?
Moscovici (1969) asked ppts whether the bag was red/green- when confederates gave the incorrect answer of green, real ppt error rose to over 8%- he said that the minority had to be consistent, confident, committed and not pushy
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What evidence did Nemeth (1977) find?
minority influence could work because they could plant a seed of doubt in the minds of the majority- they were also more confident and determined
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What evidence did Padawar-Singer and Barton (1974) find?
exposed one group to pre-trial publicity, found that 78% gave a guilty verdict compared with the other group without any pre-trial knowledge (55% gave a guilty verdict)
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What evidence did Moran and Cutler (1991) find?
that the more pre-trial knowledge the juror had, the more likely they were to give a guilty verdict- despite them thinking that their opinion was unbiased
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What evidence is there for the effect ethnicity has on a juries verdict?
Gordon et al (1988) found that white people were more likely to be convicted and get a longer sentence for fraud and black people for burglary
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What evidence is there for attractiveness?
Stewart (1985) found a correlation between the two- supported by Signall and Ostrove (1975) longer sentence given to attractive people for fraud but shorter for burglary
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What issue was there with Signall and Ostrove's (1975) findings?
lacks ecological validity- asked for the ppts to give a sentence when this isn't the role of a juror & wasn't set in a proper court setting
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What evidence was found on the effect of accents?
Dixon et al (2002) gave ppts two tapes to listen to- one an with a Birmingham accent and another with a standard British one- more likely to find the man with the Birmingham accent guilty
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What is the Halo effect?
a cognitive bias where one opinion of someone effects the whole judgement of their character e.g. you might like one celeb because they're attractive- you automatically associate them with being kind and intelligent too but you don't know them
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Card 2

Front

What are the three levels of conformity in order of shallowest to deepest?

Back

compliance- private and public views are different, identification- conforming with a role because you identify with it & internalisation- public and private views change

Card 3

Front

What influences does the majority encourage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Smith and Mackie (1995) say about majority influence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What evidence did Moscovici find for minority influence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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