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Free will
The idea that a person is free to make their own decisions regarding behaviour.
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Determinism
Behaviour comes from forces beyond a person's control. Examples: biological, psychic and environmental
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Biological Determinism
Behaviour driven by instinctive needs, hormones, genetics and evolutionary forces
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Psychic Determinism
Freud's theory that behaviour is driven by instincts of sex and aggression, repressed conflicts, childhood experiences and memories in the unconscious
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Environmental Determinism
Behaviour occurs as a result of something in the environment. Free will is an illusion created by inconsistent reinforcement
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Free will - Limitations
Cannot be measured objectively (not consistent with scientific approach), research vague and difficult to replicate, cannot test hypothetical concepts
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Free will - Strengths
Humanistic approach based on this idea, people responsible for own actions, Brehm (1966)
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Determinism - Limitations
Is unfalsifiable, frees people of responsibility of their own actions
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Determinism - Strengths
Ideas compatible with scientific method (prediction, control), gives an explanation for behaviour (e.g. biological basis for schizophrenia)
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Holism
Behaviour is viewed as a whole rather than individual components
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Reductionism
Behaviour viewed as seperate components rather than as a whole
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Strengths of reductionism
Consistent with scientific apporach, simplifies behaviour and makes it easier to be explained
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Limitations of reductionism
Ignores complexity of human behaviour, distracts attention from other types of explanation
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Strengths of holism
Provides a more complete picture of human behaviour and does not ignore the complexity of behaviour so is more meaningful
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Limitations of holism
More hypothetical and is incosistent with scientific approach due to lack of predictability and control
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Idiographic research
Everyone unique + should be treated as such, no general laws of behaviour possible due to existence of chance + free will. Qualitative , subjective data (case studies, self-report, interviews)
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Nomothetic research
Focuses on general laws of behaviour, large sample sizes, objective + quantitative data, can be statistically analysed
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Strengths of idiographic
Provides a more complete understanding of behaviour, satisfies a key aim of science (description and understanding of behaviour) snf can serve as a source of hypotheses for later study
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Limitations of idiographic
Results cannot be generalised, methods of research generally subjective and unstandardised - makes prediction and control difficult
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Strengths of nomothetic
Is regarded as scientific (precise measurement, prediction and control of behaviour, replication and generalisation
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Limitations of nomothetic
Generalised human behaviour (ignores individual differences), provides a superficial understanding of an individual, extensive use of lab experiments - lacks ecological validity
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Nature debate
Behaviour is ultimately determined by biological factors (genes, homones, innate responses)
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Nurture debate
Behaviour is shaped and controlled by the environment
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Individual psychological level (Lerner 1986)
Refers to the psychological state of the mother during pregnancy
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Physical environmental level (Lerner 1986)
Refers to post-birth experiences (e.g. noise, additives, overcrowding)
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Sociocultural-historical level (Lerner 1986)
Refers to educational and health policies, the culture and location in which the child lives
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Paradigm
A set of assumptions about behaviour
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Empirical evidence
Used to prove or disprove a theory
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Objectivity
Sources of bias are minimised, researchers not influenced by personal feelings
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Control
Variables need to be controlled to establish cause and effect
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Predictability
Ability to predict future behaviour from findings
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Hypothesis testing
Prediction derived from a theory
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Replication
To prove the reliability of a particular method, it needs to be repeated
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Arguments FOR psychology as a science
Shares common goals of science (understanding, prediction and control), use of scientific methods, generates falsifiable models of human behaviour, scientific approaches (bio, behaviorual)
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Arguments AGAINST psychology as a science
Has no central paradigm, lacks external validity, goals of science too restrictive for complexity of human behaviour, replication/falsifiability absent in some app. (psychodynamic, humanistic), reductionist/deterministic app. too simplistic
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Card 2

Front

Behaviour comes from forces beyond a person's control. Examples: biological, psychic and environmental

Back

Determinism

Card 3

Front

Behaviour driven by instinctive needs, hormones, genetics and evolutionary forces

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Freud's theory that behaviour is driven by instincts of sex and aggression, repressed conflicts, childhood experiences and memories in the unconscious

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Behaviour occurs as a result of something in the environment. Free will is an illusion created by inconsistent reinforcement

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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