Culture and Identity Test

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What are feral children?
Children whom are not brought up by humans.
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Why is transmission of culture important?
Ensure it's shared. Allows communication and co-operation.
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What is folk culture?
Culture made by the people for the people.
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Example of folk culture?
Morris dancing
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Marxists think... ?
It should be upheld. It encourages people to be active and critical.
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What is mass culture?
Cultural products and experiences that appeal to the mass market.
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Examples of mass culture?
Reality TV, POP music, etc.
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Marxists think... ?
No real lasting value. Reproduces Capitalism.
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What is low culture?
Derogatory term for some forms of pop/mass culture.
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Examples of low culture?
Popular music, escapist fiction, etc.
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What do Marxists say?
For immediate consumption rather than lasting value.
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What is high culture?
The greatest artistic and literary achievements.
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Examples of high culture?
Music by Mozart, novels by Dickens, etc.
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It carries... ?
High prestige and lasting value.
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What are TNCs?
Trans-National Companies - the consumption of large brands all over the world.
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What do TNCs do?
Engulf local economies.
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What will happen to culture as we know it?
It will be further diversified.
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What did Bordieu suggest middle-class success was a result of?
High cultural capital/cultural advantage.
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Bordieu argues that... ?
Process of socialisation children of the wealthy go through means they learn to understand/appreciate high culture as their parents do.
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Why could this be important?
School curriculum tends to be based on cultural forms that are seen as rare/worthy. Children familiar with this culture are more likely to succeed.
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Name 4 key changes during youth.
Leave education and enter employment; Become independent of family; Increased status in society; Involved in adult activities (drinking, driving, etc.).
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What did Oakley say?
Parents socialise girls and boys differently.
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Define manipulation.
Parents encourage/discourage behaviour based on what they consider to be appropriate for the gender of the child.
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Define canalisation.
Parents direct children's interests to gender appropriate toys and games.
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What did Mac and Ghaill talk about?
A "crisis of masculinity".
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What is a "crisis of masculinity"?
Traditional identities for men were formed around industries involving manual work - these have almost completely disappeared.
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What did Cooley talk about?
The looking glass self.
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What is the looking glass self?
Where we develop a sense of ourself through how we think that others view us.
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What did Goffman think?
That "all the world is a stage."
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What is 'front stage'?
How we present ourselves to everyone.
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What is 'back stage'?
Private, only insiders allowed.
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What did Wilkinson say?
Many girls reject the idea that males and females have separate places in society; men find it easier to be girly.
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What did Margaret Mead study? What did she illustrate?
3 tribes - a wide diversity of gender roles cross-culturally.
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What did she discover about the Tchambuli tribe?
Their gender roles are the reverse of ours.
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What does this potentially prove?
Gender roles are learnt through nurture/socialisation, not nature.
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What did Giddens talk about?
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What is this?
Where globalisation challenges traditions.
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What is identity?
The way we see ourselves in relation to other people.
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What are the tree levels of identity?
The inner self; Personal identity; Social identity.
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What is the inner self?
The voice in our heads.
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What is personal identity?
Public and visible identity.
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What is social identity?
Membership, or identification with, certain groups.
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What did George Mead talk about?
The me/I/self.
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What is the 'Me'?
Your definition of yourself in a specific social role.
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What is the 'I'?
Your opinion of yourself as a whole - based on reactions of others to you.
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When is the 'Self' developed?
Through the 'play stage' and the 'game stage'.
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What is the 'play stage'? Examples?
When children play roles that aren't their own. E.g. parent, doctor, nurse.
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What does this make them aware of?
The differences between themselves and the role they are playing.
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What is the 'game stage'? Examples?
Children seeing themselves from the perspective of various participants. E.g. football, cricket.
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What does this make them aware of?
Their relationship to other players.
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What is the difference between sex and gender? (Gender is...)
Cultural expectations that society places on males and females. Usually exaggerated and stereotypical.
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What is the difference between sex and gender? (Sex is...)
Biological differences between males and females.
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What is 'biological determinism' in terms of gender?
Gender based on nature.
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What did Goldberg say about this?
Males have 'dominance tendency' - this is why they occupy the top roles in society.
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What is 'social construction' in terms of gender?
Gender based on nurture - socialisation and social environment.
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What does this theory say that society does? An example of this?
Each society creates its own gender expectations. Us in comparison to Tchambuli tribe.
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What did Statham study?
Parents trying to avoid gender stereotyping their children.
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What did he find?
They were generally unsuccessful due to the influence of wider society.
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By the age of 5 the children had...
Acquired a clear gender identity. Knew what gender they belonged to and the appropriate behaviour.
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What did Weeks say about sexuality?
It is a product of culture rather than biology.
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What did Taylor say about lesbians?
They have a lower social profile than gay men.
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What did Rich say about the eventual emergence of the gay and lesbian subculture? Why?
It is remarkable considering that Western societies tend to be characterised by a fierce 'compulsory heterosexuality'.
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Define 'ethnicity'.
Shared culture of a social group - gives its members a common identity.
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Define 'minority ethnic group'.
A social group which shares a cultural identity that is different to that of the majority population.
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Have societies become more or less ethnically diverse? Potentially due to...
More. Diaspora.
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What is 'diaspora'?
The dispersion of people from their original homeland.
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What did Poole say?
9/11 has lead to Islam being demonised and distorted by Western media.
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What do New Right thinkers argue lead to black boys joining gangs?
May have lacked male role models in the family.
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Why did Becker say black people turned to crime?
Negative labelling leading to a self-fulfilling prophecy.
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How does media portray black people? Examples?
Negatively. Knife crime, anti-social, criminal.
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What does Fuller argue?
Black people reject and go against negative labelling - disprove them.
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According to Wright, in what way do black people get discriminated at school?
Treated differently, negative labelling, racism, language barriers, seen as less capable.
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What does Lyotard argue? What has society become? Example?
This point of view is outdated - society has become more multicultural. E.g. Obama.
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What did Gilroy say?
There is no single black identity.
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What is 'double consciousness'? Example?
Being aware of roots and nationality. E.g. Black British.
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What did the Rastafarian movement aim to do?
"Set the captive free".
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What did they believe Jesus rose from the dead to do?
Break the chains of racism, injustice and oppression.
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What do they believe the real battle is?
White supremacy and global dominance.
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How did Mason say British people tend to see ethnicity?
They tend to see ethnicity as something other people have.
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How did Anwar say Asian families socialise children?
Into a pattern of obligation, loyalty and religious commitment - they tend to accept it.
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Snd and 3rd generation ethnic minorities tend to...
Adopt the culture of mainstream Britain.
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Define 'globalisation'.
Where parts of national cultures become global/international. E.g. fashion, music, food.
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What does Hall suggest about ethnic identities?
They're becoming harder to identify.
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Globalisation and diaspora are merging cultures and creating 'new ethnicities'.
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What did Buedsey find?
Evidence of the consumption of recreational drugs and designer clothes among young British Asians.
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Define 'Hybridisation'.
People from all ethnic groups combining a range of cultures to create hybrid identities.
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Define 'impairment'.
Physical or mental abnormality.
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Define 'disability'.
An impairment that prevents day-to-day tasks.
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Why did Shakespeare say disability is a social construct?
Our attitudes towards disabilities are what creates them - made by society.
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Example of how the Disability Discrimination Act has helped?
Interventions such as deaf clubs.
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What techniques did Goffman talk about?
Tension and information.
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Examples of tension techniques?
Comedy, extreme sports.
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Examples of information techniques?
Covering up a leg cast with long trousers.
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Define 'immediate gratification'.
Enjoying pleasures today rather than later.
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Define 'present orientation'.
A focus on here and now.
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Define 'fatalism'.
All events are predetermined and therefore inevitable.
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Examples of cultural signals of social class?
Lifestyle choices, appearance, personality, social status, material goods.
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Examples of economic signals of social class?
Financial situation, occupation.
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Define 'social class'.
A status hierarchy in which individuals and groups are classified.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why is transmission of culture important?


Ensure it's shared. Allows communication and co-operation.

Card 3


What is folk culture?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Example of folk culture?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Marxists think... ?


Preview of the front of card 5
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This is a very good resource which will help student with basic understanding of key concepts surrounding culture and identity. The tool format which can be in the form of a quiz, test and crossword provides very good variety.

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