cultural variations in attachment

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  • Created by: IvyVega
  • Created on: 20-05-18 16:14
continued emotional care from mother is essential
continuous emotional care from a mother or mother-substitute is necessary for normal emotional and intellectual development
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separation from mother may lead to maternal deprivation
bowlby believed that mother-love in infancy is as important for mental health as vitamins and proteins are for physical health
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separation is different from deprivation
separation means the child not being physically in the presence of the primary attachment figure, deprivation means losing emotional care as a result of the separation. deprivation avoided if alternative emotional care is offered.
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critical period of 30 months
if a child is separated from their mother for an extended time during the first 30 months, then psychological damage is inevitable
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intellectual development: deprivation lowers IQ
if a child is deprived of maternal care for too long during the critical period they will suffer mental retardation and abnormally low IQ. Goldfarb (1947) found lower IQs in children from institutions compared to fostered children.
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emotional development: deprivation linked to affectionless psychopathy
lack of emotional care may also lead to affectionless psychopathy- the inability to experience guilt or strong emotion for others. this prevents the person developing normal relationships and is associated with criminality.
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procedure
the sample in this study was 44 delinquent teenagers accused of stealing. families were also interviewed to establish any prolonged separations from mothers. all thieves were interviewed for signs of affectionless psychopathy.
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findings- part 1
14 out of the 44 thieves could be described as affectionless psychopaths. of these, 12 had experienced prolonged separation from their mothers in the first two years of their lives.
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findings- part 2
in contrast only 5 of the remaining 30 thieves had experienced separations. this suggests prolonged early separation caused affectionless psychopathy.
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limitation 1- counter-evidence
Lewis (1954) partially replicated the 44 thieves study on a larger scale, looking at 500 young people. early prolonged maternal separation did not predict criminality or difficulty forming close relationships.
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limitation 2- didn't distinguish between deprivation and privation
Rutter (1981) distinguished between deprivation and privation. rutter argues that the severe long-term damage Blowby associated with deprivation is actually more likely to be the result of privation.
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strength 1- animal studies
levy et al (2003) showed that separating baby rats from their mother for as little as a day had a permanent effect on social development
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Card 2

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bowlby believed that mother-love in infancy is as important for mental health as vitamins and proteins are for physical health

Back

separation from mother may lead to maternal deprivation

Card 3

Front

separation means the child not being physically in the presence of the primary attachment figure, deprivation means losing emotional care as a result of the separation. deprivation avoided if alternative emotional care is offered.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

if a child is separated from their mother for an extended time during the first 30 months, then psychological damage is inevitable

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

if a child is deprived of maternal care for too long during the critical period they will suffer mental retardation and abnormally low IQ. Goldfarb (1947) found lower IQs in children from institutions compared to fostered children.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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