Cultural variation in attachment

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Who conducted a global meta analysis of Ainsworth's strange situation
Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)
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how many PPs and studies did the analysis cover?
Over 32 studies and 2000 infants recorded
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what was their aim?
To explore inter and intra cultural differences in the findings of the strange situation
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which behavioral category was the most common globally?
Securely attached
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Which was the next most common form of attachment?
Insecure avoident
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Which countries where the exeption?
Israel and Japan (both collectivist cultures) found that Insecure resistant was the second most common attachment type
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which was bigger, variation between or within cultures?
variation within cultures was 1.5 times bigger than variation between
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The conclusion of this meta-analysis was what?
Most countries mirrored the findings in the US meaning it was the 'norm' and securely attached infants were globally considered healthy
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what other cultural similarities were found?
Tronik (1992) found that infants of the African tribes such ans the Zaire and the Efe where still had a PAF by 6 months despite being breastfed by multiple women in the tribe
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why did Grossmann and Grosssmann find many German children to be insecurely attached?
German parenting styles invoves injterperosonal distance between parents and children, driving down the need for proximity seeking behaviors
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what did Takahashi (1990) find in relation in the study of 6 middle class Japanese infants?
similar to ainsworths findings but very low rates of insecure avioident and high rates of insecure resistant (32%) 90% of studies had to be stopped after seperation due to the levels of infant distress
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What would explain the infants reaction in Takahashi's 1990 study?
Cultural child rearing practices in Japan mean that mothers are rarly seperatied from their infants. this makes it appear as if the child is insecure resistent
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Overall conclusion?
Despite cultural variations in infant care the mother is still most commonly the PAF
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E1: How do Van IJzendoorn and Krooneenberg challange Bowlby's idea that attachment is innate?
They suggest that global mass media is involved in providing a global standard for parenting and thus for attachment
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E2: Does Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg really test attachment across culture?
not really - the 1988 study compares nations not cultures
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E2: What evidence is there for suggesting that that attachment varies between subcultures?
Van Ijsendoorn and Sagi (2001) found that Attachment types in tokyo where similar to America wharas in rural Japan they found there to be more insecure resistant infants
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E3: What is an issue with the Strange Situation being an American concept?
as a tool it measures attachment against american standards of what is regraded as healthy
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E3: in Which country might this strange situation not be an appropriate tool?
Japan - This is because a healthy attachment relatinship in rural Japan would appear to be more like an insecure resistant attachment
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Card 2

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how many PPs and studies did the analysis cover?

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Over 32 studies and 2000 infants recorded

Card 3

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what was their aim?

Back

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Card 4

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which behavioral category was the most common globally?

Back

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Card 5

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Which was the next most common form of attachment?

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