Cuban Missile Crisis

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  • Created by: xlivxia
  • Created on: 10-01-16 19:07
What relationship did America and Cuba have before 1959?
They were allies and America owned most of the businesses on the island and held a naval base there too.
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American-backed dictator Batista was overthrown by who in 1959?
Fidel Castro
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Between 1959-61 what did Castro change about the relationship between Cuba and America?
He took over American-based businesses in Cuba.
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What did Castro do in 1960, however?
He received arms from the Soviet Union.
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What happens in January 1961 and how does Castro react?
The USA broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba. Castro thought that the USA were preparing to invade.
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What was the Bay of Pigs incident in April 1961?
JFK supplied arms, equipment and transport for 1400 anti-Castro exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow him. They were met by 20 000 Cuban troops with modern weapons. The invasion failed and Castro captured them within days.
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What did this incident suggest to Cuba and the Soviet Union?
The USA was unwilling to get directly involved in Cuba. The Soviet Union leader Khruschev was scornful of Kennedy's pathetic attempts to oust Communism from Cuba.
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How did the situation develop in 1962?
In May, USSR publically announced it was supplying Cuba with arms.In July, Cuba had the best equipped army in Latin America. In September, 1000s of Soviet missiles and 5000 Soviet technicians were put on Cuba.
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What exchange took place between Kennedy and the USSR on the 11th September?
USA warned USSR that he would prevent Cuba's becoming of a nuclear missile base. The same day, the USSR assured the USA that it had no need or intentions to put nuclear missiles on Cuba.
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What did U-2 spy planes reveal about Cuba in October 1962?
Nuclear missile sites were being built on Cuba by the USSR.
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What did American experts say?
Some were supplied with missiles, some weren't. The most developed sites could be ready to launch missiles in just 7 days.
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What were Kennedy's options?
Doing nothing, surgical air attack, invasion, diplomatic pressures or a blockade.
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What does Kennedy do on the 22nd October?
Announces the blockade and calls on the Soviet Union to withdraw its missiles.
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What is Khruschev's response on the 23rd October?
Sends a letter to Kennedy saying that Soviet ships will not observe the blockade. Khruschev does not admit the presence of nuclear missiles on Cuba.
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What does Khruschev's first letter offer?
Khruschev would consider dismantling the Cuban missiles if Kennedy assures him that the USA would not participate in an attack on Cuba and the blockade lifted.
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What does Khruschev's second letter propose instead?
If Kennedy withdraws USA's missiles inTurkey, then Khruschev would remove USSR's missiles in Cuba.
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What are the results of the American U-2 plane being shot down over Cuba?
Kennedy declares to delay an attack and ignores Khruschev's second letter.
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What is the result of this?
Kennedy accepts terms of Khruschev's first letter and says that if the USSR does not withdraw then an attack will follow.
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Give 5 reasons why the Soviets would place missiles on Cuba.
To bargain with the USA, to trap the USA (Khruschev wanted to USA to be drawn into a nuclear war), to defend Cuba, to get the upperhand in the Arms Race (USSR were concerned about the missile gap) and to test the USA.
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What happened to Cuba?
Stayed Communist and highly armed. The nuclear missiles were withdrawn under UN supervision.
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How did Kennedy and Khruschev emerge from the crisis?
Kennedy had an improved reputation in his own country and throughout the West. Khruschev claimed a personal triumph, he was seen as a responsible peacemaker.
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How did the crisis affect USA-USSR relations?
Thawed relations - more prepared to reduce risk of nuclear war by signing a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
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How did the crisis affect anti-Communist opinion in America?
Critics of Containment had wanted the USA to invade Cuba to turn back Communism. Such intervention was not worth the high risk of nuclear war.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

American-backed dictator Batista was overthrown by who in 1959?

Back

Fidel Castro

Card 3

Front

Between 1959-61 what did Castro change about the relationship between Cuba and America?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Castro do in 1960, however?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens in January 1961 and how does Castro react?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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