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What is counter-urbanisation?
An increase in the proportion of a country's or regions population living in rural and semi-rural areas.
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Give an example of how local-occupancy clauses have helped to manage the impacts of counter-urbanisation.
In parts of Cumbria, some relatively low-cost houses can only be bought by people who have lived in the area for at least 3 years. This means that local people on low incomes can stay in the area.
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Give an example of how rural mobile services have helped to manage the impacts of counter-urbanisation.
NatWest Bank has mobile banking units that visits rural communities in Cornwall, Devon and South Wales each week.
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How have developments been restricted to help manage the impacts of counter-urbanisation?
In some areas, developments are only allowed if they're in keeping with the rest of the area, such as the houses must be built with certain materials.
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Where has counter-urbanisation been seen in the UK?
St Ives, Cambridgeshire. It is 70 miles north of London.
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How has St Ives population changed?
It has increased. In 1961 its population was 3,800, by 2010 it had reached 16,400.
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Why is St Ives attractive?
It has good road access and rail links to Cambridge and London. many people commute into Cambridge and 25% of the population commute into London each day.
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Where is traffic congestion a problem?
On the A14, the main commuter route between St Ives and Cambridge, especially during rush hour.
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How have house prices changed in St Ives?
They have increased. In 2000 the average detached house cost £130,000, but this increased to £291,000 in 2010. Commuters often earn higher wages than local workers, so they are able to afford higher prices.
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What is the environmental impact of counter-urbanisation in St Ives?
St Ives is on the Great River Ouse and has a history of flooding. As the demand for housing has increased, more homes have been built on the floodplain south of the river, putting more residents at risk of flooding.
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In St Ives, how many properties are at risk of a 1 in 100 year flood?
1,000
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How have services changed in St Ives?
There are now more shops and services. In addition to everyday food and grocery stores there are shops selling other goods, such as clothes and antiques, as well as cafes and restaurants.
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How has St Ives' population structure changed? What has this resulted in?
The original population was ageing, but the influx of younger people means there are now more under 16's than over 65's. This has put pressure on schools, and more pre-school and primary school places are needed.
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How has flooding been managed in St Ives?
After flooding in 1998 and 2003, flood protection works costing £8.8 million were completed along the Great River Ouse in 2007. New embankments and flood walls were also constructed.
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How has education been managed in St Ives?
There are plans to extend primary schools to make 240 more places available.
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How has housing (especially prices) been managed in St Ives?
In 2010, plans were approved for 200 new homes. At least 75 of these will be affordable, aimed at people on lower incomes, such as social rents and low-cost ownership.
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What is social rent?
Houses that are rented out at low rates by councils and housing associations.
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What is low-cost ownership?
Buying a house at a discounted price or buy a share in a house and rent the rest.
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How has congestion along the A14 been managed in St Ives?
By a £116 million guided busway, linking St Ives, Huntingdon and Cambridge. There are also pa=lans to extend it to a new train station in Cambridge, from which journey times to London will be quicker than from Huntingdon, reducing Huntingdon use.
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In the UK, how did rural populations change between 1991 and 2001?
They increased by 6.1%.
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In the UK, how did metropolitan populations change between 1991 and 2001?
They decreased by 2.1%.
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In the UK, how did 'resort towns' and 'new towns' populations change between 1991 and 2001?
They increased, above the rate of natural increase.
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What is the main cause of counter-urbanisation?
Rural-urban migration, which was very important in the changing geography of the UK between 1970 and 1990.
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In general terms, where has counter-urbanisation been seen in the UK?
Urban dwellers migrating from metropolitan counties such as Greater London to adjacent rural counties and districts within commuting distances, such as Berkshire.
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What is the 'rural turnaround'?
Counter-urbanisation is one of a number of processes contributing to social and demographic change in rural settlements.
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What are the features of 'rural turnaround' in terms of out-migration?
The out-migration of young village-born adults seeking education and employment opportunities elsewhere.
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What are the features of 'rural turnaround' in terms of in-migration?
The in-migration of younger, more affluent people, and the in-migration of young to middle-aged married couples or families with young children.
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Card 2

Front

Give an example of how local-occupancy clauses have helped to manage the impacts of counter-urbanisation.

Back

In parts of Cumbria, some relatively low-cost houses can only be bought by people who have lived in the area for at least 3 years. This means that local people on low incomes can stay in the area.

Card 3

Front

Give an example of how rural mobile services have helped to manage the impacts of counter-urbanisation.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How have developments been restricted to help manage the impacts of counter-urbanisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where has counter-urbanisation been seen in the UK?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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