Crude oils and fuels (excluding fractional distillation)

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Crude oil?
contains different compounds that boil at different temps. Need to be separated to make useful fuels. Made up of mainly hydrocarbons
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Fractions?
liquids that boil within different temp ranges
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General formula for alkanes?
CnH(2n+2)
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Why are alkanes saturated?
Because alkanes contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible in each molecule
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Methane
CH4
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Ethane
C2H6
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Propane
C3H8
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butane
C4H10
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Pentane
C5C12
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What happens when propane burns?
It is oxidised. Propane + oxygen= carbon dioxide + water
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What happens when incomplete combustion occurs?
It produces carbon monoxide which is a toxic gas as it is carried by the blood instead of oxygen.
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What do carbon particulates (another result of incomplete combustion) cause?
Lung damage and global dimming.
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What does sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides produce?
Acid rain
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how are these compounds formed?
Sulfur dioxide= when fossil fuels are burned. Nitrogen oxides= when fuels burn at high temps oxygen and nitrogen may combine
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Biofuels
are made from plant or animal products and are renewable
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biodiesel
can be made from vegetable oils extracted from plants
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Advantages of biodiesel
low carbon dioxide levels
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disadvantages
uses lots of farmland area
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Ethanol
made from sugar cane or sugar beet is a biofuel. it is a liquid and so can be stored and distributed like other liquid fuels. it can be mixed with petrol.
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Hydrogen advantage?
only produces water when burned.
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Disadvantage?
it is a gas so takes up a large volume of room. Difficult to store in quantities needed for combustion in engines. It can be produced from water by electrolysis but this requires large amounts of energy
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

liquids that boil within different temp ranges

Back

Fractions?

Card 3

Front

CnH(2n+2)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Because alkanes contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible in each molecule

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

CH4

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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