Crude oil and fuels

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How does crude oil form?
It forms naturally over millions of years from the remains of living things
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What are hydrocarbons?
They are compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms joined with covalent bonds
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What is the general formula for alkanes?
CnH2n+2
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What is the first alkane and its formula?
Methane and CH4
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What is the second alkane and its formula?
Ethane and C2H6
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What is the thrid alkane and its formula?
Propane and C3H8
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What is the fourth alkane and its formula?
Butane and C4H10
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What are alkanes and their properties?
They are saturated hydrocarbons which means their carbon atoms are joined by single covalent bonds which makes them unreactive,
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What is the definition of distillation?
Distillation is a process that can be used to seperate a pure liquid from a mixture of liquids
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Why does distillation work or only work?
It works when the liquids have different boiling points
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What is the process of disillation?
The liquids are heated and evaporated at different boiling points, causing them to seperate. It is then cooled and condenses in a condensor. Laving seperated water,
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What is the simpel sequence for distialltion?
Heating->Evaporating->Cooling->Condensing
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Describe the STRUCTURE of fractional distillator?
It is a tall coloumn with several condensers coming off at different heights. The column is hot at the bottom and cool at the stop.
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Desribe the different substances that distill at the top and bottom?
Bottom for large hydrocarbons which have high boiling points, not volatile, doesnt flow easily, doesnt ignite easily. Top for short hydrocarbons-Low boiling points, very volatile, flows easily, ignites easily
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What is complete combustion?
When there is plenty of air for fuels to burn in,
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What is the equation for the combustion of coal which is mostly carbon?
Carbon + Oxygen-> Carbon dioxide
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What is the equation for the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
Hydrocarbon + Oxygen-> Carbon dioxide + water
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When does insufficent combustion?
When they is insufficient air for complete combustion
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What is formed instead of carbon dioxide and what is wrong with it?
Carbon monoxide-A toxic gas which is poisonous,
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What is formed when carbon dioixde dissolves in water?
It forms a weakly acidic solution
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How does sulfur dioxide form and what does it damage?
It forms by sulfuir cioxide and damafes buidling and statues, -Damages te waxy layer on the leaves of trees, -makes river adn lakes more acidic for aqautic life,
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What can also cause acid rain?
Oxides of nitrogen-NO
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Why are fossil fuels running out?
Coal and crude oils are non-renewable resources as they take so long to form that they can't be replaced once they have all been used up,
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Give 5 harmful substances released from burning fossilfuels?
-Carbon dioxide, -Carbon monoxide, -Water vapour, -Sulfur Dioxide -Oxides of nitrogen
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What are biofuels made from?
Biofuels are fuels produced from plant material like rapeseed oil and other plant oils,
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Is bioethanol a hydrocarbon and why?
No it isnt as it contains oxygen-C2H5OH
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What is bioethanol made from?
By fementing sugfars from sugar canes,
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What are the advantages of biofuels?
-it is conserving our natural reosurces, -It is bioneutral so less global warming, -Renewable energy resource,
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What are disadvantages of biofuels?
-Not as efficinet, -Isnt carbon neutral-Doesnt take into account transport, -Modify engine, -Unethical-food shortage-Food prices increase
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are hydrocarbons?

Back

They are compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms joined with covalent bonds

Card 3

Front

What is the general formula for alkanes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the first alkane and its formula?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the second alkane and its formula?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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