Hydrocarbons and fractional distillation

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What is crude oil?
A mixture of hydrocarbons.
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How can Crude oil be extracted?
Drilling and pumping.
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What are hydrocarbons? And what do they consist of?
Hydrocarbons are fuels, eg. petrol and diesel. They're made of only Carbon and hydrogen.
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What is a mixture?
Two or more elements that aren't chemically bonded to each other. Crude oil is a mixture of many different compounds, most of which are hydrocarbon molecules.
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What are the properties of a mixture?
As none of the hydrocarbon molecules in the mixture are chemically bonded, they all keep their original properties and condensing points. The properties of a mixture are just a mixture of the properties of the separate parts.
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What are fractions?
Fractions are the parts of the mixture that make up crude oil. Each fraction contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms.
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How can fractions be seperated?
By fractional distillation.
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How does fractional distillation/ the fractionating column work?
Heated crude oil is piped in at the bottom. The oil evaporates and rises up the column. The temperature decreases the further up the column you go. The fractions are tapped off at different levels where they condense.
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What are properties of shorter hydrocarbon molecules?
more runny (less viscous (gloopy)), more volatile, more flammable (easier to ignite)
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What does 'more volatile' mean?
'more volatile' means they turn into a gas at lower temperatures, therefore it vaporises/ condenses at a lower temperatures and also has a lower boiling point.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How can Crude oil be extracted?

Back

Drilling and pumping.

Card 3

Front

What are hydrocarbons? And what do they consist of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a mixture?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the properties of a mixture?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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