Cromwell's role and power as vicegerent?

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Role and power as vicegerent meant
He enlisted the help of the reformers (including Cranmer), to devise statements on religious doctrine that could be issued in the king’s name and enforced throughout the Church.
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How did Cromwell justify his actions?
declaring that he was simply following the king’s instructions and that those who opposed might be guilty of treason. Pursued a policy of threat and intimidation- could secure a working majority in Convocation, useful tool in controlling the Church.
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How did Cromwell ensure his actions were followed?
Issued several sets of highly detailed injuctions or orders. Bypassing the episcopacy.
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First set of Royal Injuctions issued in the summer of 1536 enforcing the Crown’s doctrinal and anti-papal measures included:
Erasing any reference to the Pope in religious services. Defending the royal supremacy in sermons. Removing superstitious images in churches. Encouraging the preaching of scripture. Discouraging pilgrimages
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What was Cromwell's greatest success?
The Ten Articles
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Why was it such a great success?
Secured a movement away from the existing beliefs and practices of the Church. Henry was distracted so Cromwell could pass it: susceptible.
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What did the Ten Articles do?
The Seven Sacraments- was rejected, leaving only three: baptism, penance and the Eucharist.
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What was the follow up of the Ten Articles?
The Bishop’s Book in July 1537
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Why was the King reluctant to accept the Bishop's Book?
Consumed with domestic policies, didn't read the book for months- king agreed to its publication but only on condition that the book be clearly marked as carrying only the bishop’s authority. He was willing to make a short introduction.
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When was it named the King's book?
1543
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When were the second set of Royal Injunctions issued?
1538
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JPs to police the process of compliance. Any bishop who refused to implement the instructions was to be reported to Cromwell but what was the difference?
more specific and reformist in tone than those of 1536. They stated the objects of dubious veneration such as the relics of the saints, should be removed from churches and that people should be actively discouraged from undertaking pilgrimages
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How was the process assisted?
Cromwell ordered the destruction of Thomas Becket’s shrine in Canterbury Cathedral.
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What caused the rift between William Barlow and his clergy?
Bishop for St David’s ordered that the bones of Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, should be removed from public view to discourage pilgrimage and then quietly buried
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What was Cromwell's most significant Royal Injuctions?
Register of births, marriages and deaths should be kept in every parish. Unintended consequence: accumulation of one of the richest sources of evidence for the study of family history.
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How did the Reformation in England stop abruptly?
1539 when Parliament passed the Act of Six Articles. Marked the beginning of a conservative ascendancy in both Church and State as the Duke of Norfolk, supported by- Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester and Bishop of Durham sought to undermine.
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How was the halt of Reformation helped?
Deteriorating international situation-an alliance between Francis I and Charles V. Henry feared that they might respond to Pope Paul III’s call for a Catholic crusade against him. Ageing Henry convinced the Reformation had gone too far.
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What did the Act of the Six Articles do?
Reinforced existing heresy laws and reasserted traditional Catholic doctrine as the basis of faith: Confession reintroduced. Consubstantiation was rejected and transubstantiation reintroduced. Clerical celibacy enforced. Private masses were allowed.
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Why was it a panic measure?
King reacting to international pressures. His excommunication in 1538 by Clement’s successor, Pope Paul III was followed by the new threat of invasion: peace between Francis I of France and Charles V, King of the HRE and Spain.
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What was the doctrinal position of the Church of England by the 1540s?
Reformation took a conservative path after Cromwell’s fall in 1540 but the continued influence of Cranmer as archbishop, aided by the king’s pro-reformist final wife, Catherine Parr (1512-48) ensured that some Lutheran principles were saved.
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How did Cromwell justify his actions?

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declaring that he was simply following the king’s instructions and that those who opposed might be guilty of treason. Pursued a policy of threat and intimidation- could secure a working majority in Convocation, useful tool in controlling the Church.

Card 3

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How did Cromwell ensure his actions were followed?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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First set of Royal Injuctions issued in the summer of 1536 enforcing the Crown’s doctrinal and anti-papal measures included:

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Card 5

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What was Cromwell's greatest success?

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