Critical Thinking Flaws

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Ad Hominem
A form of reasoning that dismisses an opposing view by attacking the arguer rather than their reasoning.
1 of 12
Straw Man
This flaw misrepresents or distorts an opposing view in order to dismiss it.
2 of 12
Confusing Cause and Effect
An argument that confuses the cause and the effect of the cause.
3 of 12
Sweeping Generalisation
A generalisation that moves from some to all, creating a stereotype. It may sometimes move back to one individual again.
4 of 12
Hasty Generalisation
Draws a general conclusion from insufficient evidence
5 of 12
Slippery Slope
Reasons from one possibility through a series of events, which are not properly, logically linked, to an extreme consequence.
6 of 12
Conflation
Bringing two or more different concepts together and treating them as the same thing.
7 of 12
Circular Argument
One of the reasons is the same as the conclusion or you must assume that the conclusion is right for the reasons to make sense.
8 of 12
Tu Quoque
An attempt to justify one (possibly wrong) action on the basis that someone else is doing it.
9 of 12
Oversimplifying Relationships
Assumes a causal connection without good reason, oversimplifies causal relationship or confuses cause and effect.
10 of 12
Restricting the Options
Presents a limited picture of choices in a situation in order to support one particular option.
11 of 12
Confusing Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
An argument that assumes that a necessary condition is also sufficient or a sufficient condition is also necessary.
12 of 12

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

This flaw misrepresents or distorts an opposing view in order to dismiss it.

Back

Straw Man

Card 3

Front

An argument that confuses the cause and the effect of the cause.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A generalisation that moves from some to all, creating a stereotype. It may sometimes move back to one individual again.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Draws a general conclusion from insufficient evidence

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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