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6. the state's power to apply or deny a label to the victim

  • pictures in frames
  • 'victim' is a social construct by the state ie. when police don't press charghes against a man assulting his wife denying her as a victim
  • patriarchy poverty powerless groups such as women victims

7. crime may also create indirect victims

  • such as friend, family and witnesses
  • such as those who watched it on TV

8. Do walkalte support structural forces?

  • Maybe
  • Yes
  • No

9. who found that those that witnessed child sniper continued to grieved a year later

  • pynoos
  • BCS
  • Rock

10. structural forces-

  • enforces victimisation
  • patriarchy poverty powerless groups such as women victims
  • victim is a social construct

11. Tombs + Whythe note that the ideological function of this 'failure to label'

  • conceals the true extent of crime
  • lets everyone know teh true nature of the crime

12. Class poorest

  • more likely to be vuctimised
  • less liekly to ve victimised

13. repeated victimisation

  • if your a victim once you're likely to be a victim again
  • if youre a victim once you're not likely to be a victim again

14. BCS ..... have not been victims of a crime but a mere 4% of the population are 44% victims of crime

  • 4%
  • 6%
  • 9%

15. 70% of homocides are....

  • male
  • female
  • transexual

16. hierachy of victimisation

  • powerful and powerless both as likely to be victims
  • powerless more likely to be victimisation
  • powerful more likely to be victimised

17. who says that a victim is a form of structural powelessness

  • hentig
  • walklate
  • brookeman

18. Newburn and Rock found that homeless were..... time more liely to experience violence

  • 15
  • 12
  • 10

19. Tombs and Whythe looked at 'safety crimes'

  • where employers wouldn't give victim status as they were 'accident prone'
  • where employers would give victim status as they were 'accident prone'
  • where employers wouldn't give victim status as they wern'te 'accident prone'

20. Women are more likely to be victims of

  • domestic violence
  • homocides
  • floods