Criminology WJEC Unit 4

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Aggravating Factors
Factors that can increase the sentence given, can occur when a convicted criminal is on bail and commits further crimes, racially motivated crime, gang or group crime, child or elderly abuse, use of weapon or attempt to destroy evidence.
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Mitigating Factors
Factors that can decrease an individuals sentence, for example mental illness or disability, young offender, shows remorse.
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Roles of a Probation Officer
Report writing, recommend sentence, monitor sentence, manage offender's license ocnditions.
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Offenders Management
attend community service & drug rehabilitation, wear a tag, meet the curfew requirements.
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License Conditions
No outside UK travel, stay at permanent address, meet curfew, no internet access.
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Police and CPS
CPS provide police with charging advice, police present evidence to CPS, evidence aids CPS in preparing cases for courts.
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Two Crime Control Models
Packer constructed 2 models in order to represent the two competing systems of values when working within criminal justice.
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Due Process Model
Left realist, predicts innonence, system should be an obstacle course, should always be fair, evidence should be collected fairly.
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Crime Control Model
Right realist, system should be a conveyer belt, swift and fast justice for victim, military policing style, suspect assumed guilty.
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Rational Ideology
Ideas and beliefs based on logical predicitons.
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Social Control
Thoughts, feelings and behaviour are regulated in social systems, pressures persuade members within society to conform to the rules and norms.
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Social Bond Theory
Travis Hirschy, young people less attached to parents/family are more likely to commit crime, young people who have a positive view of behaviour are less likely to commit crime.
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Differential Association Theory
Criminal behaviour that results from interactions with others, learned criminal behaviour from people close to you -family or friends, moment born we are conditioned to societys norms.
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Control Theory
Humans required nurturing so that we develop attachments to others, these personal attachments are necessary in order to develop conscience, crime is result of insufficient attachments that didn't develop conscience.
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NACRO
National Associatin for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders.
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Aims of Punishment
Retribution, reparation, rehabilitation, deterrence, public protection.
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Retribution
Punishment will be linked to the nature of the crime, and therefore should be proportionate.
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Reparation
Punishment should compensate the victim of the crime.
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Rehabilitation
Restoring someone to a normal life thorugh training and therapy after, during or instead of imprisonment.
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Deterrence
Punishment preventing people from wanting to commit crimes.
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Public Protection
Protecting society from criminals and the criminal from themselves.
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CPTED
Crime prevention through environmental design
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Zero Tolerance Policy
Strict law enforcement
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Right Realists
Fight crime through the zero tolerance policy, curfews, ASBOs, three strikes rule.
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ASBO
Anti-social behaviour order, examples are graffiti, street drinking, loud music.
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External Social Control
Comes from social sanctions, uses reward and punishment to encourage behaviour (operant conditioning).
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Internal Social Control
Informal techniques to maintain socail control. It involves internalisation of norms and values by a process known as socialization.
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Formal Sanctions
Custodial sentences, fines.
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Common Law
Laws developed by the ruling of judges, for example, people having the duty to read contracts,
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Problem with Zero Tolerance Policing
Can cause displacement, and it ignores white collar crimes.
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Environmental Crime Prevention
Formal and informal measures attempting to put an end to anti social behaviour and prevent it from deteriorating.
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Role of Police
They can make arrests, protect the public and enforce laws.
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Role of Judge
They can intepret law, give sentences, ensure fair and equal trial, give juries advice.
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Role of CPS
Can provide the police with charging advice, look at evidence, prepare cases for court.
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Evidenital Test
The prosecuter decides if there is enough evidence for a realist conviction.
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Public Interest Test
If it's in the public's interest to prosecute the offender.
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Police DO Achieve Social Control
Deal with a raise in crime even with a reduction in staff, anti terror police have limited terror attacks.
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Police DON'T Achieve Social Control
The knife crime rates in London are not decreasing, 48% of cases close with no offender intentified, police are known for being racist - Stephen Lawrence Case.
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CPS DO Achieve Social Control
They are an separate organisation from the police, they use the full code test which provides consistency and equality, 600000 cases are prosecuted each year.
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CPS DON'T Achieve Social Control
Stephen Lawrence case, no prosecutions for female genital mutilation, Warboys case.
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Prisons DO Achieve Social Control
Seen as a serious deterrant, 90,000 prisoners in the UK providing public protection.
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Prisons DON'T Achieve Social Control
44% reoffend in first year of release, angle grinder case, drugs are readily available for the offender.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Factors that can decrease an individuals sentence, for example mental illness or disability, young offender, shows remorse.

Back

Mitigating Factors

Card 3

Front

Report writing, recommend sentence, monitor sentence, manage offender's license ocnditions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

attend community service & drug rehabilitation, wear a tag, meet the curfew requirements.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

No outside UK travel, stay at permanent address, meet curfew, no internet access.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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