criminology terms

Anomie
The ways in which limited access to approved social goals (wealth, success, fame) through legitimate means may lead some to adopt illegitimate means.
1 of 41
Anti-social behaviour
Defined in law as behaviour that causes or is likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress.
2 of 41
ASBO
Anti-Social Behaviour Order. Introduced by the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 and extended by further legislation, in particular the Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003.
3 of 41
Biological positivism
Along with other forms of ‘positivism’, approaches human behaviour as something that is largely determined by external factors.
4 of 41
Broken windows
Wilson and Kelling 1982, published article, in which they argued that successful community crime prevention must involve a focus on relatively ‘minor’ forms of disorder – such as vandalism and graffiti – as well as targeting more serious offences
5 of 41
Chicago School
A particularly influential group of sociologists based at the University of Chicago in the first half of the twentieth century, noted for their ‘ecological’ approach to the explanation of crime in the city.
6 of 41
Classical criminology
An early criminological school based upon the assumption that criminals are rational actors capable of choosing between different courses of action
7 of 41
Cognitive behaviourism
An approach to treatment or therapy which focuses both upon how people think and how they behave – and assumes that these things interact.
8 of 41
Community orders (sentences)
Penalties imposed by a criminal court which involve some form of supervision – most usually by the Probation Service.
9 of 41
Community policing
A police organisational strategy that decentralises policing, seeks to be responsive to local citizen demands + incorporate a general problem-oriented approach to policing, - to help communities resolve crime problems collaboratively
10 of 41
Criminalisation
The processes by which certain acts, or particular people or groups, are defined as criminal.
11 of 41
Cultural criminology
A recently emerging strand of criminological theory that combines traditional sociological theories with aspects of cultural studies.
12 of 41
Deterrence
An approach to punishment which rests on the belief that it will prevent future offending
13 of 41
Developmental (crime) prevention
An approach to the prevention of crime through the study and application of interventions at various stages in the life course
14 of 41
Deviancy amplification
The idea that deviant conduct may be exacerbated by intolerant social responses. Linked in particular with labelling theory
15 of 41
Differential association
The idea that our behaviour is heavily influenced by those with whom we interact.
16 of 41
Crime control
Ideal typical approach to criminal justice 1. crime control approaches tending to emphasise the importance of convicting the guilty
17 of 41
Due process
Ideal typical approach to criminal justice 2. due process approaches place greater emphasis upon the importance of protections adjacent the wrongful conviction of the innocent
18 of 41
Incapacitation
An approach to punishment which stresses the importance of prevention through incarceration/imprisonment or other restriction
19 of 41
Just deserts
A sentencing philosophy which argues that discretion should be limited and that punishment should be proportionate to the seriousness of the offence committed.
20 of 41
Labelling (theory)
The application of a label or identity to a person or a group in a way that has some consequential effect on behaviour
21 of 41
Left realism
An approach to criminological theory which was, a reaction / criticism of existing radical theories in the 1970/80s. Argued that radical theories had underestimated the impact of crime on ordinary people and had romanticised offending
22 of 41
Managerialism
The shift in government policy towards ‘new public management’ characterised by, elements of privatisation; marketisation; the increased use of performance indicators; partnership working and redesignation of clients as customers
23 of 41
Mandatory sentence
Where sentencers (judges or magistrates) have little or no discretion, and legal guidelines impose an obligation to impose a particular type of sentence, or a particular length of sentence.
24 of 41
Moral panic (and folk devil)
Occur when a condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests (these are the ‘folk devils’); its nature is presented in a stylised and stereotypical fashion by the mass media
25 of 41
Panopticon
A plan for a particular style of prison, primarily associated with the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham
26 of 41
Penal populism
The growing politicisation of crime control and the apparent increasing desire of politicians to defer to public opinion (or certain forms of public opinion) when making decisions on crime policy
27 of 41
Radical criminology
Criminological theory, influenced by Marxist sociology, which emphasises the importance of social inequalities + power relationships in the processes by which certain forms of behaviour /particular groups in the population are criminalised
28 of 41
Rational choice
A theory which emphasises the importance of rationality in human action, even if this is limited (or ‘bounded’)
29 of 41
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation is a treatment-based process, intervention or programme to enable individuals to overcome previous difficulties linked to their offending.
30 of 41
Repeat victimisation
The observation, based largely on data drawn from victimisation surveys, that criminal victimisation is not evenly distributed, but is concentrated in particular places and on particular people.
31 of 41
Restorative justice (RJ)
A process whereby the parties with a stake in a particular offence come together to resolve collectively how to deal with the aftermath of the offence and its implications for the future.
32 of 41
Retributivism
In relation to punishment, the term refers to a justification based on vengeance – of society ‘getting its own back’ for offences committed
33 of 41
Right realism
An approach to criminological theory which sought explanation in moral decline, in the failures of welfarism and in the inadequacy of current systems of punishment.
34 of 41
Social control theories
Theories which take various forms but which, at heart, assume that everyone would commit crimes given the opportunity, but are prevented from doing so by a variety of controls – some external (i.e. social) and some internal (i.e. psychological).
35 of 41
Social crime prevention
By contrast with situational crime prevention, such approaches tend to focus on informal controls that are held to inhibit offending behaviour most of the time
36 of 41
Sociological positivism
A theoretical approach within criminology that places emphasis on the social determinants of behaviour, and pays little regard to individual decision-making or choice.
37 of 41
Strain theory
Linked with the notion of anomie, strain theory focuses upon the failure to achieve socially approved goals and the problems this creates. Such ‘strain’ may result in a variety of adaptations, one of which is to engage in deviant activity.
38 of 41
Subcultural theory
Sociological theories that traditionally focused on working-class subcultures and the ways in which alternative value systems might form the basis for deviant activity
39 of 41
Utilitarianism
A philosophy often summarised as involving concern with promoting the sum of human happiness (the greatest happiness of the greatest number). In relation to punishment, therefore, utilitarian philosophy tends to focus upon the goal of the prevention
40 of 41
White-collar crime
Offences committed by high status individuals within the workplace or in the interests of the organisation
41 of 41

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Defined in law as behaviour that causes or is likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress.

Back

Anti-social behaviour

Card 3

Front

Anti-Social Behaviour Order. Introduced by the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 and extended by further legislation, in particular the Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Along with other forms of ‘positivism’, approaches human behaviour as something that is largely determined by external factors.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Wilson and Kelling 1982, published article, in which they argued that successful community crime prevention must involve a focus on relatively ‘minor’ forms of disorder – such as vandalism and graffiti – as well as targeting more serious offences

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Criminology resources:

See all Criminology resources »See all Key terms resources »