Criminal Behaviour.

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How could you define crime?
Any behaviour where the individual intents or not to break the law that cause damage or harm.
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Give 2 things that influences what crime is.
1. Time 2. Change.
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Give an example where time and change has changed the law.
Homosexuality.
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How can you measure crime?
One way is by using stats where 1 criminal act is filled but, there may be more than one person. Some people may not have know there was a criminal act happening or they choose not to report it as they may be embarrassed or threatened.
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What is a criminal personality for serious offenders?
1. Impulsive. 2. Lack of feeling guilty. 3. Pleasure seeking. 4. Over-optimistic. 5. Self importance.
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What is the core theory?
Biological theory.
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Is the biological theory nature or nurture?
Nature.
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What does the core theory suggest with nature?
That a criminal will have genetics that are associated by antisocial behaviour. Also, criminal behaviour runs in the family.
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What is brain dysfunction?
There are problems with the pre-frontal cortex, limbic system, corpus collussum and temporal lobe - they are damaged.
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What happens in the pre-frontal cortex with serious criminals?
They are under active and so they lack self control.
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What happens in the limbic system with serious criminals?
They are over active. This controls aggression and sexual behaviour.
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Where is the amydala?
In the limbic system.
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What happens in the amydala?
The emotions like: fear and aggression doesn't work.
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What happens in the corpus collossum with criminals?
This connects two hemispheres together. This has a weak communication and is less active.
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What happens in the temporal lobe with criminals?
This deals with the language, learning and emotion. There is a slow brain-wave activity.
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Give 4 facial features.
1. Fleshy lips 2. sloping forehead. 3. Lots of hair. 4. Large ears.
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Give a criticism.
Cannot count for 1 gene - reductionist.
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Give another criticism.
Ignores role of social environment - reductionist.
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Give a final criticism.
Brain dysfunction isn't in every criminal - not generlisable.
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What is the alternative theory?
The social learning theory (SLT)
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Is it nature or nurture?
Nurture.
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We learn through...
...observing others.
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We are most likely to...
...imitate the people who are significant to us, such as: role models - friends, family, celebrities - who are in authority. If our behaviour is reinforced (strengthened), through some kind of reward, we repeat that type of behaviour.
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What does vicarious reinforcement mean?
We imitate someone to gain the same reward as the same as the person who was imitated by.
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Give an example of vicarious reinforcement.
If we see a child watching his brother threaten someone, the child is usually going to imitate him.
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Give 6 key terms to do with the SLT.
1. Observe. 2. Imitate. 3. Vicarious reinforcement. 4.Positive reinforcement. 5. Negative reinforcement. 6. repeats the behaviour.
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Who did the core study? Date?
Mednick et al. 1984.
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What was the aim?
To investigate adoption studies to see if criminals behaviour is a result of nature or nurture.
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State the participants.
Criminal records of 4,000 males born in Denmark between 1924 and 1947
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Give the procedure.
They compared the criminal records of the males with their biological and adoptive parents.
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Give the conclusion.
If the children turned out like biological parents - nature - biological. If the children turned out like the adoptive parents - nurture - environmental.
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Give a criticism.
Only boys, gender bias - androcentric.
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Give another criticism.
Large sample size - low generlisablity to women.
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Give a final criticism.
Denmark, ethnocentric - low generlisablity.
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What is the applications?
Crime reduction.
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Describe crime prevention.
Intervention programmes are aimed at youths to stop criminal behaviour. Delivered to: schools, social services. Aim to stop youths learning bad behaviour.
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What does crime prevention act as punishments?
Prison and community service are deterrents. People will avoid getting punished and so are less likely to imitate.
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What also does crime prevention do as a punishment?
They may use bans or restrictions by preventing crime. For example, by having age restrictions on DVDs young people cannot imitate criminal acts.
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Give another way crime reduction is done.
Rehabilitation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give 2 things that influences what crime is.

Back

1. Time 2. Change.

Card 3

Front

Give an example where time and change has changed the law.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How can you measure crime?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a criminal personality for serious offenders?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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