Criminal Psychology

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Definition of crime.
Actions deemed punishable by majority or those in power. Often cause harassment or offence to others.
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Definition of recidivism.
The tendency to relapse back into crime.
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ASB definition.
Acting in a manner that causes harassment. To society or family although not necessarily breaking any laws.
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Two explanations of ASB?
SLT and SFP.
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Aim of SLT
It is based on operant conditioning suggesting that criminality and ASB is produced as a result of observing and imitating role models produce this behaviour.
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Features of SLT
Modelling - observe and imitate due to characteristics. Vicarious reinforcement - want to seek the same reward that they got. Self efficacy - believe you can, due to similarity to role model. Four cognitive elements ARRM - attention, retention, repro
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What is a role model?
Someone you look up to. Desirable characteristics such as wealth or success or looks. Usually similar to yourself via age or gender.
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Rationale of SFP
That behaviour is a result of a label attached to someone due to their environment or background. Stereotypes become internalised.
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Features of SFP.
Stereotype - is attached. beliefs created. Behaviours expected. Label is internalised. Expected behaviour is shown.
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Two treatments of ASB.
Token Economy and Anger Management Programmes.
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Aim of token economy.
it si a form of behaviour modification which aims to reinforce desired behaviours and replace the undesirable behaviours.
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Features of Token Economy
Desired behaviours are positive rewarded. Should reinforce them so shown more. Reinforced by tokens - exchanged for primary reinforcers such as food. Negative reinforcement - tokens subtracted for bad behaviours, decrease their appearance. Punsihment
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Aim of AMP.
To teach self control to stop potentially violent situations.
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Features of AMP.
cognitive preparation - identify anger patterns and triggers. Skill acquisition - learn behavioural and cognitive coping skills - diary and assertive training. Application of practice - role playing.
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Three studies in Criminal Psych.
Loftus and Palmer, Yarmey, Yuille and Cutshell
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Aim of Loftus and palmer
Post event information can contaminate the original account from the witness. Explore this through the language used in questions.
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Procedure of Loftus and Palmer.
45 PT's from Uni of Washington. Shown seven clips of car crashes and asked to estimate speed. language of question changed amongst five groups.
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What were the five verbs in Loftus and Palmer?
Smashed. Collided. Hit. Bumped. Contacted.
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Findings and conclusion of Loftus and Palmer.
Smashed = 41mph. Collided= 39. Bumped - 38. Hit 34. Contacted - 32. Post event information such as language of questions can interfere with original memory.
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Aim of yarmey
To investigate the reliability of EWT using a photo line up and two questions.
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Yarmey Procedures
590 Pts - 375 females. Used an opportunity sampling method by approaching people in public places and asking them one of two questions - lost jewellery or directions. Either asked to identify the person in a 6 pic line up 2 minutes or four hours l8r.
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Yarmey findings and conclusions.
49% identified the correct person when they were present. 62% noticed when they were not there. Those prepared had better recall. 50% EWT make correct identification but 50% unreliable so shouldn't be so detrimental in court.
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Aim of Yuille and Custhell
To investigate the accuracy of EWT using a real life crime and he impact of leading questions on the accuracy of EWT.
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Yuille and cutshell procedures.
21 witnesses to a real crime outside a gunshot in vancouver, Caada. Thief fired two shots and owner 6 after robbery and tying up owner. thief died. Police interview asap and researchers 4-5 months after with 13 witnesses. 2 leading questions.
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What were the leading questions in Yuille and Cutshell?
Did you see the busted headlight? did you see the yellow panel on the thiefs car?
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Findings and conclusion of Y&C.
10 immune to leading questions. police rated central witnesses 85% accurate and guile and cutter found a 70% accuracy rate after 4-5 months. Showing more distressed = better recall so EWT not necessarily inaccurate and can resist leading questions.
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Key issue for criminal psych - ARE CRIMINALS BORN OR MADE???
Description - What extent can criminal behaviour be attributed to nature compared to nurture? This will be useful to the justice system as it will help reduce crime if we understand its origin. 64% youth reoffend - we can prevent this if we know why.
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Explain the key issue.
Made - SLT; made through imitation of behaviour of models. ASB encouraged by VR, self efficacy, ARRM. SFP; label based on background internalised. Born; serotonin, regulates emotions. Some have low levels = anger = ASB.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Definition of recidivism.


The tendency to relapse back into crime.

Card 3


ASB definition.


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Card 4


Two explanations of ASB?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Aim of SLT


Preview of the front of card 5
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