CRIME AND PUNISHMENT

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Romans 500BC – 400AD Major Crimes
Arson, Attacking the emperor, Robbing temples, Stealing farm animals, Running away from army, Being a Christian
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Romans 500BC – 400AD Minor Crimes
Theft, Hooliganism, Forgery, Selling underweight bread, Being a poor landlord
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Romans 500BC – 400AD Punishments
Burning at the stake, fighting in the arena, execution, exile (noblemen), confiscation of property, repaying cost for stolen goods, crucifixion
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Romans 500BC – 400AD Preventing Crime
Vigilies: Stop fires and crime at night, Praetorian Guard (Legionaries): Protect the emperor, Aediles Stop riots but didn’t patrol the streets
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Romans 500BC – 400AD Causes of Crime
Poverty, No police, Large towns
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Romans 500BC – 400AD Attitudes
Laziness and greed led people to crime, emperor had overall authority
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Romans 500BC – 400AD Court System Advantages
Anyone could present a case, innocent until proven guilty, defendant able to provide evidence
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Romans 500BC – 400AD Court System Disadvantages
Had to catch criminal themselves, had to collect own evidence, had to summon the accused, favored rich (clappers, orators)
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Crimes
Theft of money, food or belongings, violent crimes were minority
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Punishments
Wergilds, blood feud, pillory and stocks, hanging, whipping, outlawed (folville gang
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Robin Hood useful as...
Tells us about outlaws lives, over mighty officials, people saw him as a hero-popular, showed us that the law system was unfair
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Robin Hood not useful as...
Unrealistic, romantic, outlaws were violent and selfish, didn't exist
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Robin Hood - Myth
Stole from the rich and gave to the poor, not violent, heroic, targets the rich and the sheriff
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Robin Hood - Reality
Stole from churches as they were an easy target, threatened people with arson, not loyal, stole everyday items
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Robin Hood - Significance
Showed the unpopularity of Forest Laws, corrupt officials, over-might subjects, rich abbots
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Prevention of Crime
Army, Hue and Cry, Tithings
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Tithings
A group of 10 men over 10 who were responsible for each others actions
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Royal Courts
Kings and his lords took care of serious crimes
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Shire Courts
Twice a year every county would meet to take care of serious crimes - noblemen were the judges
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Hundred Courts
Every freeman had to attend every month to take care of less serious crimes
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Private Courts
Landowner was the judge of less serious crimes in the village
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Court System
No lawyers, Juries knew the accused, both victim and the accused could present evidence, swore an oath
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Causes of Crime
Poverty, no police
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Saxons 400AD – 1066AD Attitudes
Laziness, greed, alcohol and devil temptation led people to crime
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Trial By Hot Iron
Taken by women, carried hot iron across 3 metres, hand bandaged for 3 days, healing=innocent, not healing=guilty
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Trial By Cold Water
Taken by men, water was pure, men lowered in water on rope, floated=guilty, sank=innocent
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Trial By Hot Water
Taken by women, put hands in hot water to pick up object, arms bandaged for three days, healing=innocent, not healing=guilty
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Trial By Consecrated Bread
Taken By Priests, asks God 'choke me, for I have sinned', Priests ate the bread, choked=guilty, swallowed= sinned
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Normans 1066 - 1500 Crimes
Theft of money, food or belongings, Violent crimes were minority, Forest laws (no landowner could own a dog etc.), Breaking the King’s peace Protests, Rebellion
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Normans 1066 - 1500 Punishments
Sanctuary, Pillory and stocks, Fines to the king, Mutilation, Whipping, Hanging, Benefit of the clergy, Outlaws
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Normans 1066 - 1500 Prevention of Crime
Army, Tithings, Hue and Cry, Sheriff and his Posse
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When was the trial by ordeal abolished?
1215
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Normans 1066 - 1500 William The Conqueror
Forest laws–believed he owned England, United the country from 7 kingdoms, King’s peace–received fines instead of victim, Changed law system to deter rebels, He was religious–Trial by Combat, Needed money to run the country so introduced Murdrum Fine
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Normans 1066 - 1500 Causes of Crime
Poverty, No police force, Increase in taxes, Invasion of William, New laws
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Normans 1066 - 1500 Attitudes
Laziness, greed, alcohol and devil temptation led people to crime
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Normans 1066 - 1500 God DOES decide the verdict
Trial by ordeal, if jury can't decide they turn to God, Trial by Combat
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Normans 1066 - 1500 God DOESN'T decide the verdict
Wergilds, Blood Feud, Juries know the accused, trial by jury
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Saxons and Normans Changes
Crimes were now against the King, new laws(Forest Laws), Trial By Combat
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Saxons and Normans Continuity
Fines, Trial by Ordeal, treatment of rebels(death), Tithings and Blood Feud
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Hue and Cry
if someone was to call out then the village would have to respond by looking for the criminal. Everyone who heard had to join otherwise they would’ve been punished.
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The Constable
Chief law officer in each county who helped track down criminals.
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The Coroner
Official responsible for investigating unnatural deaths. They decided if a death was suspicious and then inform another royal official and the Sheriff.
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The Sheriff and his Posse
Men that were appointed to uphold the law and order. These men would lead the Hue and Cry.
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Sanctuary
A place such as a Church or Cathedral where a criminal could go to escape being captured as they were unable to be removed by force. Once inside the criminal would have to chose whether they were going to stand trial or be placed into exile
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Crimes
Poaching, Smuggling, Witchcraft, Heresy, Vagrancy, Protest, Highway Robbery, Drinking, Not attending Church
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Vagrants
Went around in large groups, blamed for most crimes, idleness was sinful, could join rebellions, expensive
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Heretics
Everyone should have the same religion, divides the country, rebellion, higher authority than God
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 The Gunpowder Plot
Punishments against Catholics increased by James I, Plan to replace James with one of his children, Gunpowder in cellars under Parliament, Planned for the opening of Parliament when King and MPs present, letter to Mounteagle,
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 The Gunpowder Plot Results
Gunpowder and Fawkes discovered, other plotters killed or arrested, tortured, executed
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Highway Robbery Increased
could hide in taverns, cheap horses, no police force, increased wealth, open areas, guns easy to obtain,demobilised soldiers
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Highway Robbery decreased
banks invented, less open area, mounted patrols, more travelling so less time to stop, JP’s refused to licence taverns known to highwaymen
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Highway Robbery Myth
Polite Gentleman, not violent
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Highway Robbery Reality
Violent, harsh, criminals
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Witches
Old women, Poor, Had familiars, No children, Devil marks, Widows
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Witches were feared due to...
Claims by Protestants, Economic problems, Fear in time of instability - Mathew Hopkins was the famous Witch hunter/finder
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Poaching
Punishable by death, No threat to government, Wasn’t taken seriously, Angered landowners
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Smuggling
High taxes on imports, Violent attacks on custom officials (failure to recruit), Popular, Worked in large groups, Hawcust Gang
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Punishments
Execution, Hung, Drawn and quartered, Mutilation Fines, Whipping, Pillory and stocks
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Bridewell
House of Correction built in the late 1500's to punish and reform criminals, used for vagrants, unmarried mothers and runaway apprentices, people were whipped and sent to do hard work
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Swimming Test
To see if someone's a witch, float=guilty, sink=innocent
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Ducking Stool
For women, to stop gossiping
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Bloody Code invented due to...
Belief crime was increasing, Protect property, Deterrent, Public spectacle, Minor crimes punishable by death, Get rid of worst offenders, Landowners wanted to protect property, Changes in society made law enforcement hard
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Bloody Code was a SUCCESS
Highway robbery decreased, property was protected, removed the worst criminals
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Bloody Code was a FAILURE
Executions decreased, turned into a social gathering and not a deterrent, criminals not caught, judges unwilling to convict, crime and smuggling increased
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Prevention of Crime
Army, Constables, Thief takers, Watchmen, Rewards
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Important people
King Henry VIII = Protestant, Elizabeth I = Protestant, Mary I = Catholic, Robert Aske, Matthew Hopkins = Puritan, Guy Fawkes
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Causes of Crime
Increased poverty and wealth, No police force, Taxes on imports, Reformations (1533), Guns easy to access, Poaching laws, Puritans
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Early modern period 1500 – 1750 Attitudes
Laziness and greed led people to crime, people were not religious enough, pamphlets made people believe that crime was increasing
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Crimes
Pick pocketing, theft
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Rebecca Riots 1839
Farmers and agricultural workers, Protests because of high tolls on the Turnpike Road, Destroyed the gate several times, Reaction: Imprisonment or transportation, Reason: feared another revolution
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Peterloo (16th Aug 1819):
Wanted the vote for ordinary people (Men), Mass meeting held in St Peters Field, Magistrates charged in on the peaceful protest turning it violent, Reaction: 6 Acts, Public meetings over 50 people were banned
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The 6 Acts
Banned meetings over 50 people, gave magistrates power to search houses, banned military training by civilians, strengthened laws against blasphemy, increased prices on newspapers and pamphlets, Limited the right of accused to prepare his defence
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Who were the more successful, the demonstrators at Peterloo or the Rebecca Rioters? Explain your answer. PETERLOO
Failure to win the vote, Introduction of the Six Acts, Leads to later electoral reform
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Who were the more successful, the demonstrators at Peterloo or the Rebecca Rioters? Explain your answer. REBECCA RIOTS
Enquiry set up, Tolls reduced, Leaders transported
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Transportation
Dirty, Cramped, 8 month trip, People died, Waited in Hulks and Gaols, More men then women
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Transportation Arrival
Assigned to settlers, Did whatever work their master set them, Masters provided for them, Ticket to leave, Lack of labour
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Transportation SOFT
Not execution, treated well, learnt new skills, ticket to leave, fresh start
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Transportation HARSH
Unknown, Bad voyage, some treated badly, away from home
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Transportation SUCCESS
Part of empire, reformed criminals
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Transportation FAILURE
Crime rate had not fallen, seen as opportunity(wages were better), gold rush, more expensive than prison
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Court System
Juries used evidence to give verdict, Justice of the Peace, Defence lawyers used
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Prisons in 1800
School of crime, spread disease, mixed gender, no rules, pay prison guards, no control, cramped, favored the rich, hard labour
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Prisons in 1900
Focus on reform, women and children separate, deterrent, prison inspectors, solitary confinement, government pays prison guards, bread and water diet, useful and pointell work
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Explain the arguments put forward by those who wanted to make change to prisons in 1800 - 7 marks
End transportation, prisons used more, reform prisoners, stop Schools of Crime, train prisoners in useful work, make it a deterrent, introduce more order, work of individuals like Fry and Howard
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Prisons WERE better in 1900
Separate people, conditions for women, separate prisons for children, reformatory schools, new prisons built, more order, inspectors appointed to attempt to reform
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Prisons WERE NOT better in 1900
Separate and silent systems, pointless work, use of solitary confinement and hard labour, whipping, electric shocks, bread and water diet
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Separate System
people were kept in individual cells were they worked, prayed and had religious teaching on their own. However it was hugely expensive because prisons had to be rebuilt (Penton Ville)
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Silent System
No evidence it reformed criminals and there was high suicide and insanity rates . It was cheaper but required a great deal of discipline.
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Useful Work
Prisoners would make boots, mats or prison clothes. Was more popular because it encouraged prisoners to work.
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Pointless Work
Critics thought it was better because prisoners hated it and they would be less likely to commit crimes. Pointless work included the ‘treadwheel’ (Abolished in 1902) and the Crank (also abolished in 1902)
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Punishments
Fines, private executions, prison
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Prevention of crime
Army, Bowstreet Runners patrolled London in 1749, Thames River Police were set up in 1848 to prevent and detect crime, Constables no longer worked as there wasn’t enough and they were only employed for one year and they had other jobs
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Police Force set up due to
Fear of protest, Growth of London, Increased crime, Increased fear of crime, Taxes
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Police Force SUCCESS
The Great Exhibition in 1851, respected (Bobbies)
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Police Force FAILURE
Seen as waste of money, drunk, violent(crushers)
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Elizabeth Fry
Separated women and children, Taught new skills, Made children better educated, Provided furniture and clothes, Improved hygiene
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 John Howard
Wrote the book ‘The State of Prisons’, Was a sheriff so was responsible for prisons, Provided specific evidence, Reform didn’t happen until after death
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Causes of crime
Extreme poverty, no police force, increased population and towns
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Industrial Period 1750 - 1900 Attitudes
Laziness and alcohol lead people to crime, people were born criminals, people weren't religious enough, Schools of Crime, Newspapers and Magazines led people to believe crime was increasing
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Twentieth Century Britain 1900 - 2000 Crimes
Drug dealing, Computer fraud, Football hooliganism, Evading taxes, Not sending children to school, Car theft, Vandalism
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Twentieth Century Britain 1900 - 2000 Punishments
Community service, Prison, Capital Punishment abolished in 1965
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Explain why the suffragettes used violent methods
Women denied the vote, Campaign by peaceful suffragists had not worked, Ignored by the government, Violent methods attracted publicity
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Twentieth Century Britain 1900 - 2000 Prevention of Crime
Army, police force, Community Support Officers
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Twentieth Century Britain 1900 - 2000 Jures
Juries use evidence, judges decide with jury, defence lawyers
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Twentieth Century Britain 1900 - 2000 Causes of Crime
Schools of Crime, Large Towns, Poverty
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Twentieth Century Britain 1900 - 2000 Attitudes
Laziness and greed led people to crime, punishments and prisons are seen as too lenient, people are influenced by TV, film and games
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Theft, Hooliganism, Forgery, Selling underweight bread, Being a poor landlord

Back

Romans 500BC – 400AD Minor Crimes

Card 3

Front

Burning at the stake, fighting in the arena, execution, exile (noblemen), confiscation of property, repaying cost for stolen goods, crucifixion

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Vigilies: Stop fires and crime at night, Praetorian Guard (Legionaries): Protect the emperor, Aediles Stop riots but didn’t patrol the streets

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Poverty, No police, Large towns

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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isobelirwin

this is great

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