Crime and globalisation

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What does globalisation mean?
The interconnectedness of societies.
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Globalisation has many causes, for example:
The spread of new information and communication technologies.
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Held et al suggests that there has also been a globalisation of...
...crime.
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The same processes that have brought about the globalisation of legitimate activities have also brought about the spread of...
....transnational, organised crime.
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Globalisation creates new opportunities of...
...crime.
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There are also new various...
...cyber-crimes.
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Who argues that there is now a global economy worth £1 trillion per annum?
Castells.
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Name an example of the form that it takes:
Smuggling of illegal immigrants.
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The global economy has both a demand side and a...
...supply side.
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What is a part of the reason for the scale of transnational organised crime?
The demand for products and services in the (rich) west.
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However, the global criminal economy could also not function without a...
...supply side that provides the source of drugs/sexworkers ect.
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What is global risk consciousness?
When globalisation creates new insecurities and produces a risk consciousness which is seen as global rather than tied down to particular places.
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For example: There is a global risk consciousness about...
...immigration.
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Fears which create a global risk consciousness can be both rational and...
...irrational.
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Most of our knowledge about risks comes from...
...the media.
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However, the media often gives an exaggerated view of...
...the dangers that we face.
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In the case of immigration, the media creates...
...moral panics about the supposed threat that it poses.
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This is often fuelled by...
...politicians.
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What has negative coverage of immigrants (portrayed as scroungers/ terrorists) caused?
Several hate crimes against ethnic minority groups in many European countries (including the UK).
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One result of a global risk consciousness is the intensification of...
...social control at a national level.
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For example, name one way in which the UK has toughened its border controls?
Fining airlines if they bring in undocumented passengers.
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Who argues that, by giving free rein to market forces, globalisation has created greater inequality and more crime?
Taylor.
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Globalisation has created crime at both ends of the...
...social spectrum.
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Firstly, it has allowed transnational corporations to switch manufacturing to...
...low-wage countries.
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What 3 things has this caused?
1. Job insecurity 2.Unemployment 3.Poverty.
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Deregulation means that governements have little control over their...
..economies.
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For example: They cannot creates jobs or raise taxes at the same time as...
...welfare state spending has declined.
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Marketisation has encouraged people to see themselves as individual...
...consumers.
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This means that they will calculate the ...
.. personal costs and benefits of each action.
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This underminds...
...social cohesion.
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Which group of sociologists argue that the increasingly materialistic culture promoted by the global media portrays success in terms of lifestyle and consumption?
Left realists.
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How do all the factors already mentioned cause people (especially the poor) to turn to crime?
They create insecurity and widening inequalities.
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Excluding the poor, who does the globalisation process also create criminal opportunnities for?
The elite groups.
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For example: The deregulation of the financial markets has created opportunities for the movement of...
...funds around the globe to avoid taxation.
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Globalisation also led to new patterns of...
..illegal employment.
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For example: using workers who are willing to work illegally/ for less than the minimum wage so that they are more...
...flexible.
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Taylor's theory is useful in linking global trends in the capitalist economy to...
...changes in the patterns of crime.
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However, he doesn't adequately explain how these changes make people...
...behave in criminal ways.
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His theory is too deterministic as it doesn't explain why...
...all people who are affected by the changes don't turn to crime.
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As we saw in Winlow's studt of bouncers in sunderland, globalisation and de-industrialisation have created...
...new criminal opportunities and patterns at a local level.
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Who was a local study of a post-industrial town done by?
Hobbs and Dunningham.
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They found that the way crime is organised is linked to ...
...the economic changes brought about by globalisation.
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Increasingly, organised crime involves individuals with...
...contacts forming a loose-knit network.
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These often link both legitimate and...
...illegitimate opportunities.
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Dunningham and Hobbs argue that that large-scale, hierarchical 'Mafia style,' criminal organisations are...
...of the past.
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These new forms of organisations sometimes have...
...international links.
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Despite these organisations' international links...
...they are still rooted in their local context.
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For example: Individuals still need local...
...contacts and networks to find opportunities to sell their drugs.
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What name does Hobbs and Dunningham give for global criminal networks with local ties?
'Glocal.'
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They believe that crime has become...
...glocal.
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However, it is not clear that such patterns are..
..new.
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Their theory also assumes that older structures of crime have...
...disappeared.
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It may be that both glocal structures and older structures of crime organisations have ...
...always existed.
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The fact that they draw general conclusions about crime from one case study shows that their theory is too...
...general.
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The fact that they draw general conclusions about crime from one case study shows that their theory is too...
...general.
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Card 2

Front

Globalisation has many causes, for example:

Back

The spread of new information and communication technologies.

Card 3

Front

Held et al suggests that there has also been a globalisation of...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The same processes that have brought about the globalisation of legitimate activities have also brought about the spread of...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Globalisation creates new opportunities of...

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