Crime and deviance Key studies

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Durkheim (1895)
At least a certain, limited amount of crime was necessary for any society
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Stanley Cohen (1972)
In his view, the media coverage of crime and deviance often creates 'folk devils'.
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Robert K.Merton (1938 )
(Strain theory ) People engage in deviant behaviour when they are unable to achieve socially approved goals.Not everyone can reach goals legitimately so turn to illegitimate.(Conformity , Innovation , Ritualism , Retreatism, Rebellion)
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Hirschi (1969)
(Bonds of attachment ) Crime happens when people's attachment to society is weakened, it depends upon the strength of the social bonds that hold people to society. (Attachment,Involvement, Commitment, Belief)
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Albert K.Cohen (1955)
(Status Frustration) Deviance results from the inability of those in the lower classes to achieve mainstream success goals by legitimate means such as educational achievement.
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Cloward and Ohlin (1960)
(Three subcultures) Different subcultures respond in different ways to the lack of legitimate opportunities.(Criminal subcultures, Conflict subcultures , Retreatist subcultures)
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Miller (1962)
Argues that the lower class has its own independent subculture separate from mainstream culture, with its own values.
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Becker
He came up with the idea of labelling theory.
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Jacobsen and Rosenthal
Self- fulfilling prophecy
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Fuller
Self - denying prophecy
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Piliavin and Briar (1964)
Found that police decisions to arrest a youth were mainly based on physical appearances , from which they made judgements about the youth's character.
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Cicourel (1968)
Found that officers 'typifications' different stereotypes. For example police officers judgements are 'working class committing crime'.
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Edwin Lemert (1951)
Primary and Secondary deviance
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Downes and Rock (2003)
We cannot predict whether someone who has been labelled will follow a deviant career, because they are always free to decide.
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David Gordon (1976)
Crime is a rational response to the capitalist system and it is found in all social classes.
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Chambliss (1975)
Argues that laws to protect private property are the cornerstone of the capitalist economy
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Reiman (2001)
'The rich get richer and poor get prison'. Poor people commit crimes such as burglary and rich people such as serious tax evasion.
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Taylor et al
Active criminal due to lack of structure
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Cohen
Subcultural formation by working class
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Herrnstein and Murray (1994 - Right Realism)
Argue that the main cause of crime is low intelligence
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Charles Murray (1990)
Argue that the crime rate is increasing because of a growing underclass
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Lea and Young (1984 - Left realism )
They identified three related causes of crime: relative deprivation,subculture and marginalisation
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W.G. Runciman (1966) - Relative deprivation to explain crime.
Crime happens when people feel others unfairly have more than them and resort to crime to obtain what they feel they are entitled to.
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Frances Heidensohn (1996) - Gender differences
Four out of five convicted offenders in England and Wales are male. By the age of 40, 9% of females had a criminal conviction, as against 32% of males.
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Heidensohn (1997) - Gender and crime through time
1782: Women committed 12% crime , 1860: women committed 17% and in 2013 5% of women committed crime
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Heidensohn (1985)
Women are able to conceal pain during menstruation, able to mislead during sex which aids ability to commit and conceal criminal behaviour.
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Otto Pollack (1950) - The chivalry thesis
The criminal justice system is thus more lenient with women and so their crimes are less likely to end up in the official statistics.
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Ministry of Justice (2009)
49% of females recorded as offending received a caution in 2007, whereas for males the figure was only 30%.
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Adler ( 1987 )
Women who are deemed to lack of respectability, such as single parents, punks and peace protesters, find it difficult to have their testimony believed by the court.
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Lombroso and Ferrero (1893) - Biological assumptions
Criminality is innate, but that there were very few ' born female criminals'.
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Talcott Parsons (1955) - Functionalist gender role theory
Traces differences in crime and deviance to the gender roles in the conventional nuclear family.
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Albert K.Cohen (1955) - Lack of an adult male role model
Relative lack of an adult male role model means boys are more likely to turn to all - male street gangs as a source of masculine identity.
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Carlen : class and gender deals
Carlen argues that working - class women are generally led to conform through the promise of two types of deals: Class deal ( Women who work will be rewarded with a decent standard of living and leisure opportunities), gender deal (emotional rewards)
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Freda Adler (1975) - Liberation thesis
Argues that as women become liberated from patriarchy, their crimes will become as frequent and as serious as men's.
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James Messerschmidt (1993) - Accomplishment
Argues that different masculinities co-exist within society, but that one of these, hegemonic masculinity, is the dominant, that most men wish to accomplish.
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Pryce ( 2013)
Most women report they are in prison due to partners involvement in criminal activity
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Heidensohn (1985)
Women are treated more harshly when they deviate from norms of female sexuality.
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British Crime Survey (2007) - Intra - ethnic crime
In 90% of crimes where the victim was white, at least one of the offenders was also white
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Graham and Bowling (1995) - Self-report studies
Found that blacks (43%) and whites (44%) had very similar rates of offending, while Indians (30%), Pakistanis (28%) and Bangladeshis (13%) had much lower rates.
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The Macpherson Report (1999) - Police Racism
There was institutional racism within the Metropolitan Police.
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Philips and Bowling (2007)
Many officers hold negative stereotypes about ethnic as criminals, leading to deliberate targeting for stop and search.
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Arrests and cautions
Figures for England and Wales show that in 2006/7 the arrest rate for blacks was 3.6. times the rate for whites.
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The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) - Prosecution
CPS is more likely to drop cases against ethnic minorities. This could be because of stereotyping ethnic minorities as criminals.
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Sentencing
Custodial sentences were given to a greater proportion of black offenders (68%) than white (55%) or Asian offenders (59%), whereas whites and Asians were more likely than blacks to receive community sentences.
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Prison
In 2007, just over a quarter of the male prison population were from minority ethnic groups, including 15% Black and 7% Asian. Blacks were five times more likely in prison than whites.
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Card 2

Front

In his view, the media coverage of crime and deviance often creates 'folk devils'.

Back

Stanley Cohen (1972)

Card 3

Front

(Strain theory ) People engage in deviant behaviour when they are unable to achieve socially approved goals.Not everyone can reach goals legitimately so turn to illegitimate.(Conformity , Innovation , Ritualism , Retreatism, Rebellion)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

(Bonds of attachment ) Crime happens when people's attachment to society is weakened, it depends upon the strength of the social bonds that hold people to society. (Attachment,Involvement, Commitment, Belief)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

(Status Frustration) Deviance results from the inability of those in the lower classes to achieve mainstream success goals by legitimate means such as educational achievement.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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