Crime and Deviance 1

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  • Created by: AliceEva
  • Created on: 19-03-15 13:08
Define Crime
A behavoir/action which breaks the law
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Define Deviance
A behavoir/action which dosent break the law but goes against societies norms and values.
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What year did Cesare Lombroso conduct his study?
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What was Cesare Lombroso's study called?
On criminal man
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Who did Cesare Lombroso study?
Italian prisoners.
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How did Cesare Lombroso gather evidence?
Lombroso sketched and measured the convicts
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What word does Lombroso use to describe the physical appearance of convicts?
"Atavistic" - Ape like/ Not fully evolved
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Critique Lombroso's study
Ethnocentric, Gender blind, outdated study, what if not all prisoners were guilty?
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What study supported Lombroso's?
1990's New Right
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Describe the 1990's New Right study
New Right claimed that crime is innate (shows support for lombroso) they also focused on ethnic groups and concluded that black people are more likely to commit crime than white.
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Who did Sheldon study?
Around 200 male offenders aged 15-21
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What were Sheldon's three physiques?
Endomorphic, Mesomorphic, and Ectomorphic
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Sheldon Believes that criminals are...
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Describe Mesomorphic
Muscular and Athletic
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Describe Endomorphic
Fat and soft
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Describe Ectomorphic
Thin and Fragile
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Critique Sheldon's study.
He only looked at juveniles, Dont need to be muscular to commit fraud
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What did Hans Eysenck study?
The link between personality traits and criminal behavior.
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What are Eysenck's two Personality types.
Introverts and Extroverts
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Describe Introverts.
Learn societies Norms and Values quickly, Law abiding, shy and reserved.
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describe Extroverts
Outgoing, Impulsive, Risk takers etc.
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what personality type does Eysenck describe as criminal?
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Who did John Bowlby study?
44 young offenders - Small sample size
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How many of the young offenders had been separated from their mothers before the age of 5?
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What does Bowlby claim the cause for criminal activity?
Maternal Deprivation
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Define Maternal Deprivation
When a child has not enjoyed a close and continuous relationship with its mother.
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What is Durkheim's view of crime?
'Crime is an integral part of all healthy societies'
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Why does Durkheim believe crime is good?
It causes social change. E.g French revolution.
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How does Durkheim believe Punishment helps society?
Punishment Reinforces societies Norms and Values.
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How does Durkheim believe crime helps society?
Crime creates jobs and creates social solidarity.
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According to Functionalists when does crime become bad?
Crime becomes bad when it goes out of balance.
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When did Merton complete his Strain theory?
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What is the other term used for Merton's strain theory?
Anomic theory
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According to Merton, what causes crime?
capitalist society causes crime.
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According to Merton, when does strain occur?
Strain occurs when there is a gap between socially accepted goals of society and the socially accepted means of achieving these goals.
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According to Merton, what happens when strain occurs?
The individual experiences a sense of strain and anomie.
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According to Merton, how does society encourage crime?
Society encourages crime by telling you to achieve goals you cannot obtain.
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According to Merton, what are the five possible responses to Strain?
Conformists, Innovators, Ritualists, Retreatists and Rebells
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Define Merton's Conformists.
A person who sticks to the rules and Aims for success
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Define Merton's Innovators.
A person who tries to achieve success by illegitimate means.
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Define Merton's Ritualist.
A person who continues to work within the system but stops trying.
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Define Merton's Retreatist.
A person who abandons both goals and the means of acheiving them and become dropouts E.g Drug addicts
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Define Mertons Rebells.
A person who rejects societies goals and the accepted means of acheiving them. E.g revolutionaries.
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Critique the Functionalist Approach (4)
Too posative and simplistic, ignores victims of crime, Ignores Non-Utilitarian crime, Dosen't explain why some are innovators and others are retreatists etc.
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What Percentage of the prison population is Female?
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What are the three roles of punishment?
Detterance, Rehabilitation, Incapacitation.
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Define Detterance.
A short, sharp shock - 1980's UK, used to prevent you from re-offending.
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Define Rehabilitation.
Drug/Alcohol rehab, Anger management etc.
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Define Incapacitation
Punishment - 3 strikes rule in the USA, life means life, cutting off hands, Excecution etc.
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What are the two main forms of Punishment?
Retribution and Restitute
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Define Retribution.
Vengefull punishment E.g An eye for an eye.
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Define Restitute.
Repairing damage caused E.g Community service
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What is the Functionalist approach to the functions of punishment.
Punishment reinforces the value consensus and creates social solidarity.
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What is the Marxist approach to the functions of punishment.
Used to divide society, Punishment is a form of Oppresive State Appuratus which defends the ruling class idealogy.
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What is the New Right approach to the functions of punishment.
Punishment should be tough and imposed on all societies 'Folk Devils'.
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What is the Post Modern approach to the functions of punishment.
Punsihment today is more about controlling the mind than the body - 'surveillance society' leads to 'self regulation' found in schools, factories etc.
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Describe Benthams Panoptician Idea.
A new Model of prisons where the guards could see the prisoners but the prisoners could not see the guards = Self Regulation.
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Is prison effective?
Very expensive per prisoner (£45,000), Not cost effective, 60% Re-Offending rates in the first 12 months after release, A University of crime?
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Name some Alternatives to prison?
Devisionary methods E.g Youth clubs, Probation, Curfews, Control orders, tagging, monitering and surveilance, community service.
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What type of theory is the Subcultural Theory?
Macro theory, Another Branch of Functionalism.
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Who did Albert Cohen Study?
Delinquent boys and gang culture (youth offenders)
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What is Cohen's main point relating to strain?
Crime is not an individual response to strain (Merton)
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Give examples of group crime.
Vandalism, theft, hooliganism.
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The inability to acheive societies goals leads to...
Status Frustration!
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How is status frustration resolved?
Criminal behavoir - The working class can gain the goals but only through illegetimate means E.g Theft.
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According to Cohen how is criminal and deviant behavoir awarded?
Status, Respect, Power, Prestige Etc.
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Give one main critique of Cohen's study
He only focuses on working class offences.
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Name Cloward and Ohlin's three subcultures.
Criminal, Conflict, Retreatists.
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Define Cloward and Ohlin's Criminal Subculture
Neighbourhoods with criminal subcultures, youths are educated by adult crime heirachy and the adults are seen as role models = results in 'career' oppurtunities in crime (similar to the university of crime found in prisons)
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Define Cloward and Ohlin's Conflict Subculture
Places with no social disorganisation with no network/loosely organised. Youths turn to gangs to vent frustrationand to gain status in 'turf wars', These areas have a very high population turnover.
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Define Cloward and Ohlin's Retreatist Subculture
Based on failure from illegitemate and legitemate oppurtunities, People who fail then turn to retreatist sub-culture E.g Drug use.
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What is Cloward and Ohlins main point relating to Oppurtunity Structures?
There is a greater pressure on the working class to commit crime because they have less oppurtunities to acheive social goals via law abiding means.= 3 possible responses.
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Critique Cloward and Ohlin's study.
Not everyone turns to criminal behavoir, Fails to consider white collar crime, Women have more blocked oppurtunities than males.
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When did Walter Miller conduct his study?
1950's Functionalist
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Does Walter Miller acknowledge strain?
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Miller beleives in a Value Consensus, what does this mean?
A Value Consensus is when people within a society all hold the same Norms and values.
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What are Miller's focal points?
Ruling class have a different Value Consenus than Working class, Also the Working class male subculture has a number of focal concerns.
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According to Miller what are the Working class male subculture's focal concerns?
Major interests and involvements which may cause them to lash out.
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Give three examples of focal concerns according to Miller.
Toughness, Excitement, Smartness.
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According to Miller what is the cause for high delinquency rates?
Delinquency rates are caused by working class males acting out due to these focal concerns rather than being a reaction to blocked oppurtunity structures and strain.
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Critique Miller's Study.
Ignores Females, Many of the middle class have these focal concerns, not all working class adopt concerns.
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What form of study is David Matza's?
A major critique of the Subcultural theory.
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Does Matza veiw criminals as different to the rest of wider society?
No, He belives that they are not distinctive and share the same Norms and Values as wider society.
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What is Matza's main theory?
The Drift theory.
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Explain Matza's Drift theory?
We call commit crime in our lifetimes, However we drift in and out of it rather than living a life of it.
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Who did Matza study?
Matza interveiwed Prisoners about their Crimes and feelings.
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What did Matza discover during his study?
He found that almost all of them expressed remorse, Also that criminals had their own code of conduct E.g some crimes are seen as more deviant than others etc.
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Matza found 4 ways in which criminals are not different from others, these are...
Subterranean values, Prisoners made excuses, A mood of fatalism and A mood of Humanism.
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According to Matza what are Subterranean values?
All of us have these, However non-criminals express them in different ways E.g excitement.
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According to Matza How did prisoners make excuses?
Prisoners felt remorse and made excuses for commiting their crimes E.g knowing it was wrong.
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According to Matza how did prisoners posses a mood of Fatalism?
Prisoners were fed up of being powerless.
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According to Matza how did prisoners posses a mood of Humanism?
Prisoners didn't want to be seen as victims.
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What was Taylor, Walton and Young's Critique of Matza.
Criminals are different to others due to the decisions they make.
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Critique Matza's Method.
Interveiwer Bias, Impositional Bias, Interpretator Bias.
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What are the four different types of Corporate Crime?
Against consumers, Finnancial crime, Against Employees, Environmental crime.
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Give examples of crime against consumers.
E.g the Horse meat scandall.
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Give examples of Finnancial crime.
E.g HSBC Tax avoidance
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Give examples of crime against employees.
Canadian scaffolding scandal.
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Give examples of crimes against the environment.
Walmart BhoPal disaster.
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What is Snider's oppinion of White Collar crime?
Snider argues that white collar crime is not only ignored by most sociologists but it costs more in money and lives than street crime.
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Card 2


Define Deviance


A behavoir/action which dosent break the law but goes against societies norms and values.

Card 3


What year did Cesare Lombroso conduct his study?


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Card 4


What was Cesare Lombroso's study called?


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Card 5


Who did Cesare Lombroso study?


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