Crime

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Crime
An illegal act (such as shoplifting and murder) which is punishable by law
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Deviance
Behaviour does not conform to societies norms and values and if detected is likely to lead to negative sanctions. Deviance can be but not necessarily illegal.
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Formal Rules
Formal rules are written down e.g. laws or codes of conduct. They have an official penalty or punishment.
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Informal Rules
Informal rules are taken for granted rather than written down. They provide guidelines on how people are expected to behave in particular social settings.
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Formal Social Control
Control of people’s behaviour based on written laws and rules. Formal social control is usually associated with the ways which the state (government) regulates and controls social behaviour. The agencies of formal social control include the police f
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Informal Social Control
Control of people’s behaviour based on social processes such as the approval and disapproval of others. Informal social control is enforced via social pressure. The agencies of informal social control include peer groups and families.
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Inadequate Socialisation
This the term used to describe when a person or social group are not fully socialised in families or schools. This can be an explanation of why some people commit crime.
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The Opportunity Structure
This is a process which sociologists use to explain why some people commit crime, in terms of the level of legal and illegal opportunities available to them. For example in areas of high social deprivation there is a lack of opportunities for people
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Relative Deprivation
The measure of poverty in which a person’s wealth or lack of is compared to the rest of society, If they do not meet the general standard of living then they are classified as living in relative poverty.
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Sub-cultural Theories
This is an explanation of crime that focuses on the idea that crime is committed by the values of some subcultures and the pressure of a peer group. For example boys from poor backgrounds might participate in crime as it is “the done thing”
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Marxist Approach
This explanation in based on the idea that society is control by a ruling class. The ruling class create laws which make certain behaviour by working class people illegal and the agencies of social control are directed to focus on working class crime
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Self-fulfilling Prophecy
The process by which a person or group who have been labelled act up to the label. This means that the act of labelling causes the very behaviour it describes.
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Victim Surveys
Household based studies which ask respondents about their experiences of crime. They ask whether people have been a victim of crime and whether this was reported to the police.
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Self Report Studies
Self report studies question people about their offending. It measures the extent of self-reporting of crimes such as drug use and anti-social behaviour particularly among young people. By asking people about offending it records crime which perhaps
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Official Statistics
These are the statistics collected by the police about crimes reported and dealt with by them. These statistics allow for trends to be identified over long periods of time
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Socially Constructed
Explains how official statistics on crime might not be solid factual data which can be relied upon. This is because the data is influences by the choices which the police and victims make when recording or reporting a crime.
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Hidden/Grey Crime
This is the term given to the crime which takes place in society which is unreported to the police. This means the official statistics collected by the police are not accurate as the fail to take this crime into account
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Stereotypical Views
These are views often negative which are fixed, standardised and distorted about a particular social group such as women. These views are often based on prejudice
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Chivalry Effect
This is the process by which women who commit crime are treated more favourably by the police or courts compared to men. This leads to a lower crime rate for women
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White Collar Crime
This refers to crimes which are committed by people in relatively high status positions such as accountants or doctors. Typical examples include tax evasion or “fiddling” expense accounts
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Corporate Crime
Crimes committed by employees on behalf of their company or organisation which they work for. An example is the manufacture of a product which is harmful or unsafe
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Socially Deprived
This is the term used to describe people in society who have little or no material wealth. There is often a corresponding link to a lack of cultural capital
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Measurement Research
This is where sociologists take statistical data which has been collected and analysis to look for patterns and trends.
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Studies on Crime Impact
Examines the impact of crime on the victims. Examples include people who have been victims of burglary or domestic violence. The study could focus on physical, financial or emotional impact of the crime
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Restorative Justice
This is where a victim of crime is involved in the process of justice in relation to the criminal who committed the crime against them. It can involve a victim meeting the criminal to explain the impact of their crime
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Repeat Victimisation
This where a person or group are subject to the same crime regularly over time
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Fear of Crime
A phrase used to describe the reaction of many people to incidents or reports of crime, often through the media. People change their behaviour on the basis of this fear
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Neighbourhood Watch Scheme
A government policy in which local people take part in crime prevention measures. This might include keeping an eye out for their neighbour’s house or property or manning a volunteer patrol in their local area
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Financial Harm
This is the harm or damage which is caused to people by crime and is measured in terms of finance or money
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Physical Harm
This is the harm or damage which is caused to people by crime measure in the physical hurt or harm that is committed against them
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Social Costs
This is where sociologists measure the negative impact of crime on society as a whole. An example of this would be that people don’t bother to go out at night for fear of having crime committed against them or their property
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Youth Crime
Crime which is committed by young people. Some crimes seem to be more likely to be committed by young people than other age groups
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Social Problem
Crime generally and in particular that committed by younger people is seen as a problem for governments, policy makers and the public
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Folk Devils
A group of people whose behaviour is defined as a threat to society’s values. This is often transmitted through the media
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Moral Panic
An over-reaction in the media to certain social groups. The media exaggerating the extent and significance of a social problem
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Scapegoating
A process of blaming an individual or group for something which is not their fault
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Racially Motivated Crime
This is crime in which the motivation is racism. This can take many forms include the most serious such as murder
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Deviancy Amplification
The process whereby the social reaction to deviance from the mass media and public leads to an increase in the deviance, by provoking more of the same behaviour
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Antisocial Behaviour
Behaviour that causes harassment, distress or alarm to other people
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Behaviour does not conform to societies norms and values and if detected is likely to lead to negative sanctions. Deviance can be but not necessarily illegal.

Back

Deviance

Card 3

Front

Formal rules are written down e.g. laws or codes of conduct. They have an official penalty or punishment.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Informal rules are taken for granted rather than written down. They provide guidelines on how people are expected to behave in particular social settings.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Control of people’s behaviour based on written laws and rules. Formal social control is usually associated with the ways which the state (government) regulates and controls social behaviour. The agencies of formal social control include the police f

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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