Crime Theorists - Ethnicity and Crime

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Layton-Henry (1992)
Prior to the 1970s both gender and ethnicity had been relatively ignored in relation to crime.
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Croall (1998)
Irish considered to be the 'dangerous' class in 19th century.
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Merton (1968)
Strain Theory: Based on the concept that the American Dream is what everyone is striving for.
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Merton (1968)
When you can not have the American Dream, you feel status frustration. Anomie arises when many have the legitimate means of reaching this goal removed.
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Becker (1963)
Labelling Theory: If a group has been labelled as a 'problem' then the group is more likely to internalise that label and it will become a self - fulfilling prop
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Waddington (2004)
Police stop more black minorities as they are out in the evenings, in city centres.
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Waddington (2004)
They are targeted because of their location, not their ethnicity.
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Shaw and Mckay (1949)
Concentric circle model.
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Phillips and Bowling (2012)
Recent years have seen an increase in public anxiety about gun crime.
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Hallsworth and Young (2008)
The media is to blame because the over representation of ethnic minorities as criminals in the media means that more ethnic minority individuals commit more crime.
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Hall and Gilroy (1989)
The crime rates are explained by structural factors: Housing, Poverty and Unemployment.
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Lea and Young (1984)
CJS is racist, but doesn't fully explain the difference in statistics.
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Lea and Young (1984)
Causes of crime: Relative Deprivation, Subculture and Marginalisation. These are the explanations for the over representation of ethnic minorities at each stage in the CJS.
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Gilroy (1983)
The myth of black criminality is based on stereotypes.
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Stuart Hall (1979)
Content analysis of newspaper findings which argue there is scapegoating of this ethnic minority group.
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Gilroy (1983)
Argues that police racism is a post - colonial struggle.
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Bowling (2007)
Found that police officers had a negative stereotypes about ethnic minorities.
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Chambliss (1994)
Racist police strategies: Observed policing of 'black' areas of the city with more aggression and suspicion than 'white' areas.
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Chambliss (1994)
Racist police strategies: Stopped more Black males than White - especially if in expensive/new cares believing them to be drug dealers.
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Asian Criminality (1980 - 1990)
Ethnographic research began, after previous research had traditionally found that Asian communities are close knit, self regulating, passive and inward looking.
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Bowling and Phillips (2002)
Ethnographic research helped to explain the relatively low offending statistics for this group.
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Mawby and Batta (1980)
Most Asian families were poor, working class and lived in the inner city. Therefore they should commit more crime, but izzat stops them from doing so.
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Mawby and Batta (1980)
However, small groups of males are moving around town and rebelling against the parent culture. Taking more risks and a more aggressive stance in combating racist attacks.
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Card 2

Front

Irish considered to be the 'dangerous' class in 19th century.

Back

Croall (1998)

Card 3

Front

Strain Theory: Based on the concept that the American Dream is what everyone is striving for.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

When you can not have the American Dream, you feel status frustration. Anomie arises when many have the legitimate means of reaching this goal removed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Labelling Theory: If a group has been labelled as a 'problem' then the group is more likely to internalise that label and it will become a self - fulfilling prop

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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