Crime Theorists - Class and Crime

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Croall (1998)
Crimes such as burglary, robbery or theft, which are associated with lower-class offenders are more likely to be prosecuted than crimes such as tax evasion or breaches of health, safety or consumer legislation, that are associated with middle classes
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Albert Cohen (1955)
Delinquency is a collective rather than individual response - individuals are joining together to from a collective response with their behaviour.
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Albert Cohen (1955)
Believing that strain theory does not explain why working class males take part in crimes that are not utilitarian (practical).
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Cohen (1955)
Cultural deprivation of the working class males blocks opportunities for legitimate success, creating status frustration and deviant subculture.
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Cohen (1955)
"Throughout there is a kind of malice apparent, an enjoyment of the discomfort of others, a delight in the defiance of taboos."
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Cloward and Ohlin (1961)
Criticise Merton (1964) because they believe he fails to acknowledge that there is an illegitimate opportunity structure, which working class males have, as they have less opportunity to access the legitimate opportunity structure.
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Cloward and Ohlin (1961)
1. Criminal Subculture: These emerge where an established pattern of organised adult crime is present. This provides a learning environment for the young, with role models. These are mostly concerned with utilitarian crimes (crimes for profit).
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Cloward and Ohlin (1961)
2. Conflict Subculture: In areas that have a high turnover population and lack of cohesiveness, there is little opportunity to access the illegitimate opportunity structure.
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Cloward and Ohlin (1961)
2. Gang Violence becomes a common as both legitimate and illegitimate structures are blocked - releasing the anger and frustration and as a means of obtaining prestige.
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Cloward and Ohlin (1961)
3. Retreatist Subculture: Organised around illegal drug use as members have failed within legitimate/illegitimate structures. Retreat (tried but failed) shamefully, into drugs.
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Miller (1958)
Working class males possess a distinctive subculture that is part of the working class way of life. This stems from boredom and insecurity of working class jobs and pushes youths into crime and deviance.
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Miller (1958)
FATEST - The working class have FATEST focal concerns.
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Miller (1958)
Fate: Being unable to determine your own future and affect what happens in future.
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Miller (1958)
Autonomy: Being in control and not letting others tell you what to do.
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Miller (1958)
Toughness: An ability to face down others and a willingness to use force to achieve goals.
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Miller (1958)
Excitement: Being focused on the buzz and adrenaline.
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Miller (1958)
Smartness: Being able to think on your feet and engage in banter.
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Miller (1958)
Trouble: Being willing to accept that trouble is a feature of life and is not to be avoided.
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Miller (1958)
FATEST does explain why working class males take part in non - utilitarian crimes such as joy riding, binge drinking and assault.
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Lewis (1959)
Discusses Miller's work as a Culture of Poverty.
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Matza (1964)
Working class youths have 5 techniques of neutralisation.
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Matza (1964)
1. Denial of responsibility (not my fault)
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Matza (1964)
2. Denial of injury (insured, not serious)
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Matza (1964)
3. Denial of wrong doing (rip off prices)
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Matza (1964)
4. Condemnation of rule makers (the police are the problem)
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Matza (1964)
5. Appealing to higher loyalties (children need shoes)
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Murray (1989)
Rather than the structure of society causing the lower classes to commit more crime, it is their class.
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Murray (1989)
The underclass don't share the same values as mainstream and are responsible for a high proportion of crime, because of their rejection of society's values.
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Murray (1989)
States the underclass are defined by their behaviour, typically this involves a lack of commitment to regular employment and drunkenness.
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Murray (1989)
Women in the underclass are prone to high birth rates outside marriage.
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Winlow (2001)
Examines men's changing masculinity in Sunderland. He came up with 4 key factors.
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Winlow (2001)
1. Rapid change of industry.
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Winlow (2001)
2.Night time economy is strong, this is both of legal and illegal activities co-existing (clubs,bars, taxis, prostitution, strip clubs, cheap hotel)
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Winlow (2001)
3. Globalisation had influenced the bouncers, wanting to be like De Niro's character in Goodfella.
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Winlow (2001)
Increase in entrepreneurship.
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Baldwin and Bottoms (1976)
Some council estates are prone to tipping which can then lead to the area becoming a problem area.
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Sampson (1997)
Violent crime is the result of the community's inability to achieve its objectives and a failure to establish trust and shared expectations - this is where poverty, family and instability and high mobility occur.
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Sutherland (1940)
WCC - Crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.
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Slapper and Tombs (1999)
Crime by the individually rich or powerful which are committed in the furtherance of their own interests, often against corporations in which they are working.
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Box (1971)
Mystification - The success of capitalist organisations in convincing the general public, politicians and the media that corporate crimes have less significance, harm and are less serious.
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Newburn (2007)
Total cost of all fraud ranging between £4.4 billion and £7.8 billion a year.
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Card 2

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Delinquency is a collective rather than individual response - individuals are joining together to from a collective response with their behaviour.

Back

Albert Cohen (1955)

Card 3

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Believing that strain theory does not explain why working class males take part in crimes that are not utilitarian (practical).

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Cultural deprivation of the working class males blocks opportunities for legitimate success, creating status frustration and deviant subculture.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

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"Throughout there is a kind of malice apparent, an enjoyment of the discomfort of others, a delight in the defiance of taboos."

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