Crime Theorists - Gender and Crime

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Parsons (1937)
Sex Role Theory
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Farrington and Painter (2004)
Offenders were socialised differently to non - offenders.
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Farrington and Painter (2004)
Female offenders were much more likely to have harsh/erratic parenting with little praise or support.
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Heidensohn (1996)
Females are less likely to commit crime because they have close supervision throughout their lives.
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Hirshci (1969)
Control Theory - Act rationally and controlled in line with social norms then you will be rewarded.
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Leonard (1982)
Women's goals are about successful relationships not making money.
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Leonard (1982)
Women have low aspirations and their goals are extremely accessible.
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Leonard (1982)
Women are less likely to have 'status frustration' and therefore don't commit crime as a result of their socialisation.
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Murphy and Elwood
Women's subject choices in school/ interests do not provide them with the knowledge to commit crime (don't do STEM subjects).
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Seal (2010)
More attention is given 'understanding' why women commit crime in the media.
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Seal (2010)
Female crimes are often portrayed through negative stereotypes in the media - this has a wider implication for perceptions of womanhood.
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Evans (2010)
Language used much harsher when comparing male and female offenders of the same crime.
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Connell (1995)
Masculinities have changed over time - hegemonic definitions of masculinity and normative masculinity.
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Messerschmidtt
Masculinity has to be constantly demonstrated.
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Lyng (1990)
Society encourages the male identity to be one of risk taking.
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Lyng (1990)
This is established through 'edgework'. More likely to occur within inner cities.
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Matza (1964)
It is hard to construct a male identity in contemporary society.
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Matza (1964)
Most youths are in a state of drift - unsure who they are.
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Matza (1964)
Committing crime is a break from the boredom/ crisis.
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Katz (1988)
Seductions of Crime: Doing evil, is motivated by a moral self transcendence in the face of boredom.
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Katz (1988)
Seductions of Crime: Provides thrills (theft)
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Katz (1988)
Seductions of Crime: Righteous (murder, assault)
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Adler (1975)
Liberation Thesis: With less patriarchal control, women will begin to adopt more traditionally males roles. Both legitimate and illegitimate roles.
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Adler (1975)
Liberation Thesis: Women will no longer just commit 'female' crimes but white collar crimes and other 'male' crimes.
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Westwood (1999)
Transgression: Identities are constantly being re-constructed and re-framed as women configure their new identity.
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Carlen (1988)
Working Class women from London who had been convicted of at least one crime, felt untouched by women's liberation.
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Carlen (1988)
Women committed crimes as a rational choice.
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Goldstraw-White (2012)
Women now have more opportunities to commit White Collar Crime.
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Pollak (1950)
Chivalry Thesis: Men have a protective attitude over women.
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Heidensohn (1996)
Women are seen to be more law abiding than men, so when they break the law they also break cultural rules of gender, this meaning they are worse than men.
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Hunter (2010)
Males make up the majority of the the CJS.
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Card 2

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Farrington and Painter (2004)

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Offenders were socialised differently to non - offenders.

Card 3

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Farrington and Painter (2004)

Back

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Card 4

Front

Heidensohn (1996)

Back

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Card 5

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Hirshci (1969)

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