crime risk and community safety

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  • Created on: 18-10-18 23:41
what is crime risk and community safety
like criminology there is no set definition
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examples of where we hear about risk
climate change, terrorism, trafficking and decline of communties
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what is community
community assumes sense of public well-being
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risk
risk has subjective and objective dimensions for example people can fear crime even if their chances of victimization are low
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why is theory important
all practice we argue is washed through with theory"(Tilley and Sidebottom 2017)
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why are theories important
help organise data,link concept and ideas to real world, provide explanations based on relationship between variables,theories can be applied, tested and disproven.
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new era of crime control and prevention
criminal is irrational , individual focus, retrospective gaze, prosecution, punishment, criminal justice policies.
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what is the new focus
the criminal as rational
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the new criminologies of everyday life" and administrative criminology
the thing about criminologies is thay they begin from the premise that crime is a normal aspect of modern society. (Garland 1996)
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examples of administrative criminology
rational choice theory, routine activity theory, crime as opportunity, situational crime prevention theory
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environmental criminology
understanding crimes and the environment in which they occur. the fourth dimension of crime. crie offucrs when law, offender, target amd place are in concurrences (Brantingham and Brantingham 1981
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based on three premises
criminal behaviour influenced by nature of immediate environment, geographical distribution not random for example wealthier areas had higher rates of property crimes. by understanding the ways in which crime is patterned certain resources prevent cr
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Bottoms and Wiles 1997:305
environmental criminology is the study of crime, criminality and victimization as they relate first to particular places and secondly to the way that individuals and organizations shape their acitivities spacially and in doing so are influenced.
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early influences- chicago school
chicago as a social laboratory. characterised by population change involving diverse range of social group. "great urban game of leapfrog" (rex 1973:84)
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Burgess' zonal hypothesis
zone of transition-migrants moving in and out due to cheap housing and proximity to workplace. work life was hard and disordely.
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social disorganisation
shaw and mckay (1942) notion of human ecology. juvenile deliquency was highest in most ring and gradually decreased outwards. cultural transmission . deviant values become established in criminal areas and pased on from group to group
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criticisms of zonal hypothesis
describes one city at a particular time(late 19th century/early 20th during the boom in urbanization_ applied to USA. industrial sites in UK tend to be in the suburbs.doesnt suggest that areas change over time e.g urban decline recognizes zones
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social disorganisation application to green criminology
areas can be reorganized to prevent crime. zones of disorganization also spaces of green crimes and harms- pollution, waste, disposal, dumping of toxic materials, destroying green spaces. Eco city (lynch 2013) enhance urban life
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Death and life of great american cities
jane jacobs (1961) found four points for safe streets. 1) districts cater for range of uses. 2. promote street designs which created flourishing diversity. corners to meet people etc. 3. new and old buildings to co-exist. 4. dont have tower blocks "
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"eyes on the street"
tower blocks made surveillance impossible
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influence of "security-ology" on criminology
criminology not about crime. Shearing (2015) provides four main points.
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Shearing (2015) four points
1) security widens the criminological gaze onto new issues e.g environmental security. 2) shift focuses from the state 3) focus from the past towards pre-empting harms. 4) it seeks "normative" ways of achieving safety.
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crime prevention through environmental design. (CPTED)
CPTED - newman 1972 theory of defensible space.
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why are tower blocks prone to vandalism and other forms of crime?
the design of tower blocks limits opportunities for natural surveillance . the buildings also blend public and private space. feelings of territorality control mechanisms.
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contemporary environmental criminology
three perspectives : 1) rational choice theory (cornish and clarke 1986) 2) routine activities theory (cohen and felson 1979) 3) crime pattern theory (brantingham and brantingham 1984)
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rational choice theory
Cornish & Clarke 1983 the offender is acting rationally and purposively made active decision. offender will weigh up positives and negatives of committing an offence. "rationality" must be seen in relation to motivation from offenders perspectives.
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situational crime prevention
individuals act upon cues given by environment. situational crime prevention argues environments can induce crime. situational factors " precipitation" more crime in prisons/night clubs because theyre precipitators
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enhancing security at archaeological sites and museums
theft of "cultural property" and trafficking of illicit goods between market is big business for organised crime networks.crime prevention and security techniques can be employed at "high risk" sites.
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routine activities
cohen and felson 1979. most offender on victims property offences can be explained by the convergence of the three elements : a motivated offender, target , lack of avaiable guardian.
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weather and crime
rational choice, situational crime prevention, routine activity thesis. suggest that weather could play a role in crime? more people outside - houses empty. social interaction decreases during bad weather.
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crime pattern theory
crime not random but clusters at various places and times. hot and cold spots.
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examples
jewellery shop robbery, bar fights, physical layouts of urban areas.
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repeated victimisation
multiple victimisation of person, shop, home, car etc is common. evidence to suggest offenders use cues and templates when selecting targets (Brantingham and Brantingham 1981)
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actuarial prevention
treating individuals to controlling situations, social world complex-crime as a social fact which has to be managed like crossing the road
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rule 1
tacking crime requires diverse measures organisation of statistical categories of people and behaviours as "risky."
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rule 2
utilisations of risk indicators-age, class, gender, ethnicity.
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rule 3
theories covered last week identify that certain places and people are riskier than others
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traditional criminal justice
address past crimes, aims to punish past crimes, past crimes are rebuild in order to understand and solve crimes, begins with the presumption of innocent, actions that amount to criminal behaviour dearly defined.
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crime risk
identifies crime threats, aims to prevent offending, prior crime patterns used to inform crime risks, pressures that past offending as predictor for future behaviour, actions amount to risky behaviour as subjective
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the rise of crime risk
security is concerned with the future. crime and security have become interconnected domains in the past 30 years. rise of preventative measures to deal with crime risks two dimensions: 1) real 2) constructed.
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real risk
risks are part of everyday living : risks of illness, risk of death, risk of disaster, risk of being a victim of crime, risk of terrorism, risk of being involved in a car accident. some places and activities are riskier than others
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risk and pre-emption
"pre-emption" is the offspring of prevention . (Mcculoch and Wilson 2016) concerned with controlling the future by adressing anticipated threats. advances in technology has made prediction of crime easier
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early crime maps
Guerry and Balbi (1829) published work on "moral statistics." of france. areas shaded according to various categories of crime (person/property.) as well as poverty and education levels. showed that crime was clustered around areas of poverty and edu
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hot spot analysis
mapping and spatial analysis to better understand dynamics shaping crime. uses graphical information systems (GIS) to integrate types of data and present visually.homicide and burgulary for example are higher spatially constructed (cohen and tita )
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basic process
give data is gathered on temporal, spatial and social aspects of crime. show patterning and variations. gathered data is uploaded in forms of maps, tables, graphs, other colourful iconic displays
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prospective hot spotting
burgulary has been a long predictor for being burgled in the future, risk of repeat burglary highest in 12 weeks following an incident and within 1400 metres of original offence (Johnson and Bowers 2004)
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prospective hotspotting would
1) enable resources to be deployed to specific locations and times. use publicity campaigns to warn the public. upgrade physical security measures to vulnerable homes
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police. uk crime maps
in 2008 police launched interactie crime maps. occured in broader gov ambitions making public data more widely available. for police the maps instil confidence in the police, enhance public
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is technology effective?
maps dont provide contenxtual information. because of privacy issues -locations are snapped. without knowing the context of crimes-where it took place, how, what were the reasons? hard to lunk the maps to preventative effect.
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big data and future mapping
we luve amidst a "surveillant assemblage." (haggerty and ericson 2000) era of surveillance capitalism. (Zuboff 2014) big data refers to "size, sotrage, medium, analytic capacity (Gates 2014:186)
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cyber identities
the rise of "surveillant assemblages." abstract the human body for their physicality i.e. data doubles. (Ericson & Haggerty 2000). the modern era is one of the superpanopitcon (poster 1999) or electronic panopticon (gordon 1987).
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big data and counter-terrorism
9/11 USA patriot act (2001) provided access of public and private databases. centre for democracy and technology state that data mining the basis for generating the suspicion of criminal conduct in the first place (Gandy 2006:375)
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suspicious transactions
mathematics provides whole new set of tools in the war on terror (Gordon woo, risk management solution 2004) risk management tools identify vulnerable places and suspicious people as a form of "dataveillance" (clark et al 1994) . targetting terrorism
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personal map: social media as a crime facilitator
individuals have always been at risk of disclosing their routine activities from leaving address tags on suitcases and forgetting to cancel paper or milk deliveries . the information we put on social media says a lot about our own routine activities
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criminal intentions : google map
if people disclose information on social media. offenders can triangulate such information with open access
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the future of prevention
GPS coordinates are being used for location based on marketing and promotion . GPS could track routine activities of offenders/victims- the place where they come together. monitor levels of natural surveillance at particular locations - car parks.
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countermapping
maps are socio political constructs. instruments of government domination of power. yet they can be a source for social justice. "by reframing the world in a way that forces us to look at it new." (kindynis 2014:235)
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countermapping
most crime analysis undertaken by public and private bodies is top down=it involves agencies the police identifying what and existent criminal justice biases but this is only one side of the picture.
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minority report
pre-crime program special division. 3 precogs - foresee all crime before it occurs. strapped to a central machine they can see up to two weeks into the future. each precog provides alternative predictions. concept of pre crime is the latest
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"pre-crime"
obsessed with pre-emption and anticipatory threats. pre crime intervenes to punish, apprehend and incapacitate anyone identifed as a future crime threat
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post criminology and pre-crime
we are the cusp of a shift from a post to a pre-crime society (zedner 2007:2002) growth of private security. growth of cctv (4-6 million) responsibility for security against risks fall beyond states. from post-crime to pre-crime society (zedner 2007)
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post crime
crime, offenders, victims, crime control, policing, courts, guilty verdict, punishment
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pre-crime
risk, accumulation, uncertainity, prediction, precautions, prevention offenders register, databases, cctv, SCPs community safety, partnerships.
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commonality
the commonality of ll of the previous points are that they are concerned with the future. "pre-crime" shifts the temporal perspective to anticipate and foresee that which has not yet occured and may never do so (Zedner 2007:262)
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pre-empting terrorism
following 9/11 george bush stated "if we wait for threats to fully materialize we waited too long, we must confront the worst threat before they emerge."
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pre-crime and terrorism
the problem of risk is not that it is happening - nor indeed that it will happen simply that it might. (mythen and walklate 2010:34) fine line between future speculation and speculative imagination.
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facing airport security: biopolitics
biometrics & profiling (CAPPS_ prescreen USA are both pre-emptive discrimination one person from the next in order to prevent future eventualities. behavioural detection - to identify hostile intent through the reading of micro-expressions.
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case study : Guantanamo bay
Guantanamo bay detention camp .indefinite detaining of prisons without trial . khalid oasim held at the prison for 15 years. 41 prisons in 2017, 26 never to be released
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examples of where we hear about risk

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climate change, terrorism, trafficking and decline of communties

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what is community

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risk

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why is theory important

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