Crime prevention and victims

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 07-03-16 21:40
For crime prevention, what are the three different types of crime prevention?
1) Situtational crime prevention 2)Environmental crime prevention 3)Social and community prevention,
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For situational crime prevention, what sociologist suggested there were three features of measures aimed at situational crime?
Clarke
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What are the 3 features of measures Clarke suggested were aimed at situational crime?
1)Measures are directed at specific crime, 2) Involve managing or altering the immediate environment of the crime, 3)Aim at increasing the effort and risk of comming crime and reducing rewards,
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What theory view of crime is presented by underlying situational crime prevention?
Opportunity or rational choice theory view of crime,
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What are Clarke's views on solutions to crime and other theorists views on solutions to crime?
-He suggests most theories offer no realistic solutions to crime and we should therefore focus on the immediate crime situation since this is where the chances of intervention are greatest,
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What does Clarke argue is the main cause of crime so how should crime be prevented?
-Most crime is opportunisitic, -Therefore we should reduce crime,
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What sociolgist studied what in the U.S. to 'design crime out'?
-Felson, -The remodelling of the Port Authority Bus Terminal in NYC where the reshaping of the physical environment lead to a dramatic decrease in crime,
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However, what is one criticism of situational crime prevention?
Displacement- Situational crime doesn't reduce crime but moves it elsewhere, or displaces it,
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What sociologist looked at the crackdown of robberies where and the effect of prevention?
-Chaiken et al, -Crackdown on robberies on the subway in NYC, which simply pushed the robbers out onto the streets above,
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How many forms can displacement take and what are they?
5, 1)Spatial, 2) Temporal 3) Target 4) Tactical 5) Functional
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What is spatial displacement?
Moving elsewhere to commit the crime,
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What is temporal displacement?
Commiting the crime at a different time,
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What is target displacement?
Choosing a different victim for the crime,
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What is tactical displacement?
Using a different method to commit the crime,
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What is functional displacement?
Committing a different type of crime,
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For an evaluation of situational crime prevention, what is a positive and negative of situational crime prevention?
-Situational crime prevention does reduce certain types of crime, -However, it tends to lead to displacement,
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What two theorists criticise situational crime prevention generally and why?
-Left Realists/ Marxists, -They are critical as it ignores the root causes of crime like poverty or poor socialisation an therefore logn term strategies are difficult to develop,
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What type of crimes do situational crime prevention focus on and why do Marxists criticise this?
-Petty street crimes, -They argue it ignores white collar, corporate and state crimes, which are more harmful and costly,
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Why are Left Realists critical of what assumption and why?
-Critical of the assumption that criminals make rational choices in commiting crime, -They argue this is unlikely in crimes of violence and crimes committed when under the influence of drugs and alcohol,
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For environmental crime prevention, what sociologists use the term 'broken windows' to refer to signs of what?
-Wilson and Kelling, -To refer to all the signs of disorder and lacks of concern for others that are found in some neighbourhoods,
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Give some examples of signs of disorder?
Graffiti, noise, begging, littering, vandalism,
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What do Wilson and Kelling argue happens if these are left unaddressed?
It sends out a message that no-one cares,
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In these neighbourhoods, what two things do they lack and why?
-Social control (police), -Informal control (community), -The police are only interested in serious crimes and ignore petty crime,
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What happens to neighbourhoods where there is a lack do social control and informal control?
The neighbourhood becomes 'tipped' as powerless and intimidated members leave and a downward spiral of decline occurs,
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What are the two environmental crime prevention solutions suggested?
1) Environmental improvement strategy (fixing all 'broken windows'), -Zero tolerance policing (proactive work towards the slighest sign of disorder)
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For supporting evidence for zero tolerance policing, where was this policy introduced?
New York City,
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Give an example with graffiti?
Clean car programme- Any cars with grafitti were taken out of service and cleaned. Graffiti was largely removed fro, the subway too,
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What merchants were there 'crackdowns' on?
'Squeegee' merchants which many had outstanding warrants,
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Between 1993 and 1996, what was the drop in the homicide rate?
50%
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Although, for an evaluation, how could you counter argue the effectiveness of zero tolerance policing?
Arguably other factors could have caused the improvements in crime rates,
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For an example, in the same time period how many police officers were intrdocued?
7,000
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For another example, in the same time period, what were the rates of crime elsewhere?
In other major US cities there was a general decline, including those with no zero tolerance policing,
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For another example, describe employment and cocaine availability?
1) Increase in employment rates 2) Decline in the availability of crack cocaine,
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Give another counter argument against the homicide statisitics?
While deaths from homicide fell sharply, attempted remained high, maybe due to improving medical services.
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For social and community prevention, what two things are emphasised?
The potential offender, -Social context,
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What is the aim of social and community prevention?
They aim to remove conditions that predispose individuals to commit crime and therefore are tackling the root cause of crime,
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What types of strategies do they use?
Long term strategies to tackle the root cause of crime,
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What type of crime prevention do they also say will reduce crime due to the causes of crime being what?
-More general social reform programmes, -As the causes of crime are rooted in social issues like poverty, unemployment and poor housing.
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Give an example project where this type of crime prevention was studied?
Perry pre-school project, -3 and 4 year old children on an 'intellectual enrichment programme',
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What were the results of the Perry pre-school project?
A longitudinal study showed these children had fewer lifetime arrests and more had graduated from high school.
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Give a figure to show how this also helped society?
For every $1 spent $17 was saved by preventing crime,
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For evaluation, what two theorists criticise social and community prevention techniques?
-Marxists, -Green theorists,
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Why do Marxists criticise social and community prevention?
They argue all of these crime prevention techniques ignore crimes of the powerful,
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Why do Green theorists criticise social and community prevention?
They would point out that environmental crime is ignored in these crime prevention techniques,
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What green sociolgoist argues environmental crimes should be included where?
-Whye, -Should be included in the crime and disorder partnership agendas of local communities,
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For punishment, what are the two aims of its use?
1) Reduction and 2) Retribution,
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What is the definition of retribution?
This means 'paying back' society. It is justification for punishing crime that has already been committed rather than an attempt to prevent future crimes.
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What is retribution based on the idea of?
Based on the idea that society deserves to take revenge on offenders,
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What is the definition of reduction?
Role of punishment is to prevent future offending,
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What are the three ways crime can be reduced?
-Deterrence, -Rehabilitation, -Incapacitation,
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What is the definition of deterrence as a punishment?
Punishing th eoffender discourages them from future offending,
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What is the definition of rehabilitation as a punishment?
Punishment can be used to reform or change offenders so they no longer offend. This often involves education and training so offenders can earn an honest living after prison,
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What is the definition of incapacitation as a punishment?
The punishment is the remove the offender's capacity to offend again e.g. imprisonment, execution, cutting off hands,
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What is the functionalist view of punishment?
Positive
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What does Durhkeim argue is the function of punishment?
To uphold social solidarity and reinforce shared values,
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How does society benefit through punishment and an example?
Society can express moral outrage at the offender e.g. public trials reinforces shared norms and members feel morally united,
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What does Durkheim argue are the two types of justice?
-Retributive justice, -Restorative justice,
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What is retributive justice?
In traditional society, people have a strong collective conscience and when this is offending vengeance is demanded- punishment is therefore cruel,
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What is restorative justice?
In modern society, Durkheim believes it is important to restore things to how they were before the offence to restore society's equilibrium,
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What is the Marxist view of punishment and why?
Negative- THey argue it serves the ruling class in exploiting the working class,
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What do Marxists argue is the function of punishment?
To maintain existing social order- as part of the 'repressive state apparatus' it defends ruling class property against the loswer classes,
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What sociologists argued the form of punishment reflects what of society?
-Rusche and Kirchheimer, -Reflects the economic base of society,
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What did Rusche and Kirchheimer find?
Under capitalism, imprisonment is the main form of punishment because the capitalist economy is based on the exploitation of wage labour,
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What sociologists see punishment as reflecting what?
Melossi and Pavarini, -Punishment as reflecting capitalist relations of production,
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Give two reasions/ explanations at to how punishment reflects capitalist relations of production?
1) It puts a price on the workers time= s- prisoners 'do time' to 'pay' for their crime or 'repay' their debt to society 2) The prison and capitalist factory both have similar strict disciplinary style, involving loss of liberty,
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For Postmodernism, what Postmodernist studied the birth of prisons?
Foucault,
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What did Foucault suggest whe the two different forms of power?
1) Sovereign power, 2) Disciplinary power,
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For soverign power, when was this typical in society?
Before 19th Century when the monarch had power over people,
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Whaqt was the main way for the monarch to assert control and with what types of punishments?
-Inflicting punishment on the body was the means of asserting control, -Punishment was a public spectacle e.g. execution,
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For disciplinary power, when was this typical in society?
19th Century onwards,
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What is the form of control of a new system of discipline?
Control and governs the body and mind through surveillance,
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Give an example of disciplinary power with what prison design?
Panopticon prion designs where the guard can see all prisoners, but the prisoners can't see if they are being watched,
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With this method, how does surveillance and discipline change?
Surveillance becomes self surveillance and discipline becomes self discipline,
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Arguably, what was the role of prison until the 18th century?
It was where prisoners were held before their punoshment e.g. public flogging,
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Only after enlightenment were prisons seen as a punishment. How so?
Prisoners would be reformed through hard labour, religious instruction and surveillance,
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For imprisonment today, in liberal democracies, what is seen as the most severe form of punishment?
In countries which don't have the death penalty, imprisonment is seen as the most severe,
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However, are they effective? Give a statisitic?
They are not proved to be effective form of rehabilitation, -2/3rds of prisoners re-offend on release,
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Since the 1980s how have prisons become a political issue?
Some politicians call for 'tougher sentences' to gain favour with voters,
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As a result, describe the prison population now and a statistic?
-Prison population has soared to its largest ever, -77,000 are in prison in 2005,
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Does the UK imprison the highest proportion of people in Europe? Statistics?
Mainly in Europe e.g. 139 per 100,000 are put into prison in the UK but in France only 99 per 100,000 are put in prison,
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Howeve,r which country imprisons the most people? Statistics?
-Russia, -607 per 100,000 are imprisoned,
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What percent of the prison population are young, poorly educated males with ethnic minorities being over represented?
95%
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What sociologist suggests the USA and to a lesser extent the UK is moving towards what?
-Garland, -An era of mass incarceration,
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What sociologist looked into the ideological role of mass incarceration in the USA? What did he find about capitalism?
-Downes, -Found US prisons soak up 30-40% of the unemployed, thus making capitalism seem successful,
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In recent years, what alternatives have increasingly been instead of prisons?
There has been an increase in the range of community based controls such as curfews, community based controls, electronic taggins etc,
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However, what sociologist suggests what about prison numbers rising has led to control?
-Cohen, -He argues the increased range of sanctions has simply allowed control to penetrate deeper into society, -"cast the net of control" over more people,
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For situational crime prevention, what sociologist suggested there were three features of measures aimed at situational crime?

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Clarke

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What are the 3 features of measures Clarke suggested were aimed at situational crime?

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What theory view of crime is presented by underlying situational crime prevention?

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What are Clarke's views on solutions to crime and other theorists views on solutions to crime?

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