Crime, Deviance and Methods

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Derrida
Social structure in a state of flux.Meaning is all relative and constructed. Reality is fragile amd confusing
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Lyotard
Science has helped to destroy metanarratives, and knowledge is no longer in the hands of authorities. Actions/idea now judged on how useful they are, rather than true
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Baudrillard
We live in hyper-realities in which appearence is everything. Unable to distinguish between image and reality. If we cannot grasp reality we have no power to change or improve society e.g disneyland
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Douglass
Interperativist-critiscises Durkheim's catagories of sucide as they should be down to the meaning for the individual. Sociologists must explore the meaning attached for the victim.
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Atkinson
Phenomenologist. OS is not the exact record of suicide numbers. Coroners use a 'common sense theory' were if the deceased fits their theory, they are likely to record it as a suicide
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Taylor
Agree suicide stats are unreliable. "Persons under trains" study. Suicides with no notes or witnesses were more likely to be given a suicide verdict if they had; certain mental health issues, no reason to be at station, witness and family statments
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Durkheim
Positivist- Believed he could prove sociology can be studied quantitatively through a suicide study. He found patterns of suicide based on intergration and regulation within certain societies
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Lombrosso
"The Criminal Man”
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Mori and Jessel
Chemical imbalances….. Eg c&d caused by low levels of serotonin, inhibiting impulsive and anti-social behaviour Biological differences (testosterone) make men more likely to commit crimes than females
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Bowlby
Explained deviancy in child’s early socialisation.If suffer maternal deprivation during formative years, psychopathic personality could develop
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Durkheim
Aim of punishment is to uphold social solidarity and reinforce v.c by expressing moral outrage at the offence. Two types of punishment; retrebutive and resitutive .
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Marx
Aim of punishment is to uphold r.c ideology and protect r.c property.In capitalist society time is money so offenders “pay” by doing time, ie prison
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Foucault
Sovereign power….pre-modern society the monarch exercised physical power over people’s bodies and punishment was a visible spectacle eg public execution
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Murray
Right realist - The underclass is a ‘breeding ground’ for crime.
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Wilson
Right realist -The rise in crime results from the growth of a culture which emphasises immediate gratification, low impulse control and self-expression. This results in a l
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Kelling and Wilson
"Broken windows theory"
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Taylor
Global capitalism allows multinational corporations to move from country to country in search for profitability. This leads to reduced job security, increased unemployment, increase in part-time and temporary jobs encourages employment of people who
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Pollack
"Chivalry Thesis"
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Flood-Page
Women who admit to crimes are less likely to be charged than men
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Farrington and Morris
women are not sentenced more leniently for comparable offences
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Heinderson
courts treat women more harshly than men for deviating from their gender role.Double standards = courts punish ‘wayward’ girls – promiscuous sexual activity..but not boys.Women conform – controlled by patriarchal society and reduces opportunity to of
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Carlen
‘women are assessed more in terms of being wives, mothers and daughters’ . Less conventional girls are punished harsher. Class and Gender deals are rewards for women in society. When they can't be reached, they turn to crime
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Walklate
Too much of an assumptions that biology will make women gentle and caring
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Parsons
Female gender roles don't fit the characteristics of a criminal. Socialised to be calm, caring and expressive
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Adler
Women's liberation has lead to women's and men's crimes becoming more equal
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Lind
women branching into ‘male’ crimes like drugs..but mainly due to links to prostitution (very unliberated lifestyle
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Sharp and Budd
Black offenders were most likely to have contact with the criminal justice system in their lifetime and were more likely to have been arrested, been to court and convicted. This is despite their lower levels of offending compared to white people gene
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Becker
Deviance only exists when someone with power (media, police, politicians)
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Young
Negative labeling of hippies by the police lead them to exaggerating their label in a deviant way...Deviancy Amplification Spiral
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Chambliss
m/c are less likely to come in contact with the police than the w/c, despite their levels of crime being the same
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Cicourel
Decision to arrest based on 'typifications'
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Braithwaite
Negative labelling leads to development of master label and deviant career. Disapproval of offenders is intended to cause them to feel remorse and guilt
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Tumber
Tabloid readers and heavy users of TV express greater fear of becoming a victim, especially of physical attack and mugging.
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Bandura
Measured the effect on children of watching filmed images of aggression.
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Cohen
Folk devils and moral panics
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Marx
Crime is a rational response to capitalism
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Chambliss
Law is selective. One rule for w/c another for r/c
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Box
Argued capitalist organisations have been successful in convincing public, politicians and media that corporate crime is less serious and less harmful than other types of crime “mystification” – few prosecutions are filed against capitalists
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Taylor, Walton and Young
capitalism makes people choose to be criminal....voluntarism/free will…..conscious choice often with a political motive…..deliberately struggling to change society.
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Hall
1970s muggings, found they were used as a moral panic to divert attention from economic issues
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Young and Lea
Three reasons for crime; realtive depreivation, sub-cultures and marginalisation
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Young
Left Realist- late modernity is characterised by uncertainty and instability in areas such as family, life, work...people feel less secure and stable…w/c crime increasing problem
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Clarke
Right Realism - individuals are rational with free will.
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Hirschi
Control theorists believe that people are less likely to commit crimes of they have strong social bonds with others who encourage them to exercise self-control and tie them to conformity. If bonds are weak – people turn to crime
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Park and Burgess
Making a comparison to ‘plant communities’ they highlighted how some gardens get invaded by weeds – this was likened to the idea that certain types of areas in society are likely to experience high levels of crime."Tipping"
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Durkheim
He argued that crime is an inevitable, normal and necessary aspect of life.Crime is inevitable because not every one in society is equally committed to the collective sentiments. We are all exposed to different influences & circumstances. Crime show
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Cohen
Two functions of deviancy; Safety Valve to let up anything pent up and a warbibg device to show were society is going wrong
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Merton
In American society there seems to be great importance attached to achieving the material goals, but not equal access to institutional means....imbalance between goals and means (STRAIN) leading to anomie, lack of intergration and deviant behaviour
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Cohen
argues that delinquency is a collective rather than an individual response to status frustration and their position in the class structure
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Cloward and Ohlin
peoples’ opportunities to be deviant are also different: not everyone gets the same chances to be crooks; some have better opportunities to enter into a criminal career, particularly if they have access to a criminal subculture.
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Miller
lower class group has for centuries possessed their own culture and traditions which are totally different from those in the higher classes. This thus suggests that this lower class culture has been passed on not by one generation but for much longer
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Matza
Matza claimed that delinquents are similar to everyone else in their values and voice similar feelings of outrage about crime in general as the majority of society.
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Card 2

Front

Science has helped to destroy metanarratives, and knowledge is no longer in the hands of authorities. Actions/idea now judged on how useful they are, rather than true

Back

Lyotard

Card 3

Front

We live in hyper-realities in which appearence is everything. Unable to distinguish between image and reality. If we cannot grasp reality we have no power to change or improve society e.g disneyland

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Interperativist-critiscises Durkheim's catagories of sucide as they should be down to the meaning for the individual. Sociologists must explore the meaning attached for the victim.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Phenomenologist. OS is not the exact record of suicide numbers. Coroners use a 'common sense theory' were if the deceased fits their theory, they are likely to record it as a suicide

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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