Crime and the Media (Societal Reaction to crime)

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 01-02-16 18:13
What are the 4 topic areas for a crime and the media essay?
-Media representations of crime, -The media as a cause of crime, -Deviancy amplification and moral panics, -Global cybercrime
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For key points about the media representation of crime, what percent of news coverage is about crime?
Up to 30%
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In the 1960s, what was media coverage often focused on?
Murders and petty crimes
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Today, what has media coverage widened to?
Sex crimes, drugs, child abuse, terrorism, football hooliganism and mugging,
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For key points about media representation, the media are a powerful agency of what and how do they shape criime?
-Powerful agencies of social control that shape out perceptions of crime, -They present a distorted picture compared to OCS,
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For distortions created by media, what type of crime do they over-represent?
Violent and sexual crime,
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What percent of media crimes are about violent or sexual crimes, yet what percent do they make up on OCS?
-46% of media reports are about violent and sexual crimes, -Make up 3% of OCS,
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How does the media frequently present rapists? In contrast, who are they usually?
-They are frequently presented as 'psychopathic strangers', -Most rapists are known to the victim,
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How does the media portray the police?
They exaggerate police success in clearing up cases,
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What do the media also over exaggerate and examples?
The risks of victimisation- Especiallly to women, white and middle class people,
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What crimes do the media overplay and underplay?
The media overplay extraordinary and dramatic crimes, -They underplay ordinary crimes,
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How does the media portray criminals and victims?
As older and more middle-class than appear in the criminal justice system,
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For news values and crime coverage, what does distorted crime news coverage reflect?
It reflects the fact that news is a social construction,
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Why can media be a social construction?
AS it is the outcome of a social process by which some stories are selected and others are rejected,
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What are the purpose of news values?
To determine whether a story is newsworthy and 'manufactured',
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What types of crimes are most likely to meet news values?
Crime and deviance that is unusual and extraordinary,
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What do the news values allow for the media to recieve?
To recieve a lot of news coverage,
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How many news values are there?
8
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Give the 8 news values?
-Immeditate, -Dramatic, -Personal, -High status persons and celebrities, -Simplifications, -Novelty, -Risk, -Violence,
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What fictional representations distort crime?
-Tv, -Cinema, -Novels,
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Give a statistics for the success of crime novels?
Millions of crime novels are shown each year,
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What percent of prime time TV and films are about crime?
25% of prime time Tv, -20% of films are crime shows,
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What sociologist claims what about fictional representations?
-Surette, -Claims fictional representations follow a law of opposites, opposite of OCS, but similar to news coverage,
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What type of crime is under-represented?
Property crimes,
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What type of crimes are over-represented?
Violent, drugs and sex crimes,
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What do fictional representations of crime show murder to be like? In contrast, what are they in real life a result of?
-Fictional Representations-Follows greed and calculaton, -In real life- From brawls and domestic disputes,
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How do fictional representations of crime present sex crime? In contrast, what are they like in reality?
-Fictional representation- Psychopathic strangers, -Real life- Acquaitances,
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However, what types of offencers do more recent 'reality' TV shows focus on?
-non-white 'underclass' offenders,
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How to more recent 'reality' TV shows present the police?
As being less successful,
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What kind of focus do more recent 'reality' TV shows have?
Victim focus,
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For the media as a cause of crime, what three things have been linked to violent behaviour in society?
1) Violent films 2) Computer games, 3) Rap lyrcis
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What are the four ways in which media can cause crime?
1)Imitation 2)Desensitisation 3)Arousal, 4)Teaching,
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What is imitation as a way media can cause crime?
The media can provide deviant role models, resulting in 'copycat' behaviour,
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What is desensitisation as a way media can cause crime?
Through repeated viewing of crim,e
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What is arousal as a way media can cause crime?
Through viewing violent or sexual imagery,
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What is teaching as a way media can cause crime?
Transmitting knowledge of criminal techniques,
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What sociologist found what gender who has witnessed alot of TV violence commited around what percent more violent acts than control groups?
-Belson, -Boys, -49% more violent acts
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What sociologist conducted what kind of experiment to investigate what?
-Bandura et al, -Lab experiment, -To see if watching filmed images of aggression made children more violent,
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What did the experimental group who saw the aggression display?
They displayed more violent behaviour than the control group,
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However, what is the problem with this evidence?
There is no conclusive evidence that media violence directly causes violent behaviour.
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Instead, what does most research show about media?
It is said to have limited negative impact on audiences,
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For example, what did what sociologists find about correlations between offenders and non-offenders?
-Hagell and Newburn, -Found young offenders were no more likely to watch violent programmes than non-offenders,
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For the media and relative deprivation, what theorists argue media increase the sense of relative deprivation amongst who?
-Left Realists, -Amongst marginalised or socially excluded groups,
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How do the media increase the sense of relative deprivation?
By instilling expectations of consumptions/ cultural inclusions (e.g. latest phone)
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For the media causing fear of crime, what groups does the media exaggerate risks of crime to?
-Young women and the elderly,
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What does this create among these groups?
A distorted fear of crime,
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Research shows a correlation between who to show media causes fear of crime?
-A correlation between tabloid readers/high users of TV and fear of becoming a victim, expecially physical attacks,
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For deviancy amplification and moral panics, what theorists argue media amplify crime through the process of moral panics?
Interactionists,
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What effect is caused by this and why?
-A deviancy spiral effect, -As the media manipulates audiences through the process of social control,
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Media can further cause crime and deviance through what?
Labelling,
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For the deviancy spiral effect, firstly, what do the media identify a group as and an example?
They identify a group as a 'folk devil' -E.g. single parents,
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What do the group become and what are they seen as a threat to?
-They become demonised, -Seen as a threat to social order/ societal's values,
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The media present the group in what kind of way?
In a negative and stereotyped way,
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How do the media portray their deviance?
It is sensationalised and exaggerate (an over-reaction)
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Who then condemn the group's behaviour?
-Moral entrepeneurs, -Politicans, -The police, -News editors,
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What control does this lead to and an example?
-Formal social control increases, -For example more police officers are deployed to deal with the problems and new laws can be created,
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Therefore, what does deviance become and why?
-Deviance becomes amplified, -Because deviants live up to the labelling by the media and the increase social control,
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Therefore, what takes place due to media amplification?
A self-fulfilling prophecy,
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Give an example of media amplification and who studied them?
The mods and the rockers, -Cohen,
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What did Cohen find about the mods and rockers and the media?
-Found that minor fights between mods and rockers in seaside resorts between 1964-1966 were very much sensationalised by the media,
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What three things did the media do when presenting the mods and rockers?
-Exaggeration/distortion, -Prediciton, -Symbolism,
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For exaggeration/distortion, what did the media dramatically distort and example of their headlines and statistics?
The numbers involved and the extent of violence and damage was dramatically distorted through sensationalised headlines E.g. "Wild ones invade seaside town-97 arrests"- In fact only 24 arrests were made,
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For prediction which took place, what did the media predict?
They assumed and predicted more violence would take place,
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For symbolism which took place, what characterisitics were negatively labelled and associated with deviance?
-The clothing, hairstyles, music etc were negativelly labelled and associated with deviance,
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What did media reporting lead to in terms of control?
Increase in social control took place and increase policing,
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Therefore, what key term describes what took place by the media?
Deviancy amplification,
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Why did the media cause deviancy amplification?
AS more youths were drawn to the subcultural groups which created more participants for 'future' clashes,
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What did Cohen argue was the reason for why moral panics occur?
Due to social change,
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What did Cohen argue the mods and rockers moral panic was a result of?
A result of a boundary crisis, where there was uncertainty about the boundary of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour during the 1960s,
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What do Functionalists see moral panics as a reponse to and what does this mean?
-Anomie (normlessness),
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What does the dramatising of events serves to do?
It serves to unite society into existing (if threatened) values,
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Neo Marxists such as who studied the media's sensationalised coverage of what crime in the 1970s?
-Hall et al, -Black mugging,
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What did Hall et al argue was the reason for the media's moral panic about black mugging for and examples?
To draw attention away from the crisis of capitialism E.g. High unemployment and inflation,
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What did black mugging create in the working class and justified what?
It created a divide in the working class on racial grounds, -It justified increased policing to suppress opposition,
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For evaluation, what theorist attacks interactionist explanations about deviancy amplifcation and moral panics?
Postmodernists,
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Give an example postmodern sociologist and what does she argue about the publics reactions to moral panics?
-Thornton, -She argues that audience reaction to moral panics is not uniform- Now, they have less impact,
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Why does she argue moral panics have less impact on people?
-Peopl are less concerned so not easily panicked, -There is little consensus about what is deviant (e.g. single parenthood),
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What does Thornton also argue about manipulation/ influence?
She argues in a postmodern society, deviant groups influence (even manipulate) media coverage
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Therefore, deviants are not just what?
They aren't just victims,
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Give an example of a subcultural group and how and why they might encourage moral panics?
-Environmentalists, -May encourage negative labelling and moral panics as it gurantees coverage, -Therefore it helps growth and support for their subculture,
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What are there new moral panics about?
Cybercrimes,
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What sociologist argues what about opportunities?
-Walls, -Argues the internet (media type) has created new opportunities for crime,
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What are four different types of cyber-crime?
-Cyber-trespassm -Cyber deception and theft, -Cyber-***********, -Cyber-violence,
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Give some general examples of cyber-trespass?
Hacking and sabotage such as spreading viruses,
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Give some general examples of cyber deception and theft?
Identify theft, fraud, software piracy, illegal downloading and file sharing,
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Give some general examples of cyber ***********?
Involving minors and opportunities for children to access **** on the net,
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Give some general examples of cyber-violence?
Doing psycholgical harm or inciting physical harm E.g. Cyber-stalking (sending unwanted offensive emails or texts,
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Give one reason why it is difficult to police cyber crimes due to the internet?
It is complex and on a huge scale,
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What is another reason based on the resources?
The police have limited resources,
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What is another reason based on prosecution?
It is global so creates a rpbolem of jurisdiction (where to prosecute)
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Give another example of why it is difficult to police cyber crimes due to police culture?
Cyber-crime is given a low priority-lacks excitement of more conventional policing,
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Although, what helps the police fight crime and some examples?
New ICT/ technology, E.g.-CCTV, -Databses, -Digital fingerprints, -Identity cards, -Listening devices to monitor email traffic,
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What theorists are critical of such survelliance and why?
-Postmodernists, -They argue such technologies are invasive and infringe people's human rights.
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What do postmodernists argue about new forms of surveillance tehcnologies?
They represent dangerous and excessive social control,
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To conclude, how do the media present crime?
They give it a distorted crime,
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What types of crimes are over represented and why?
-Violent crime, -AS it meets many news values and helps sell newspapers/ attract audiences,
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WHile some see the media as causing crime, why is there lack of evidnece?
Evidence shows the media has limited effects,
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What area is the media more powerful in causing crime?
More powerful by creating feelings of relative deprivatiom among the poor,
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What does the media create which amplifies deviance?
-Moral panics,
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However, does this have the same effect now?
The effects are less strong in a postmodern world as audiences are less easily manipulated by the media.
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New forms of media such as internet have created opportunities for what two things?
-Cyber-crime, -'Policing' criminal and non-criminal populations
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Card 2

Front

For key points about the media representation of crime, what percent of news coverage is about crime?

Back

Up to 30%

Card 3

Front

In the 1960s, what was media coverage often focused on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Today, what has media coverage widened to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

For key points about media representation, the media are a powerful agency of what and how do they shape criime?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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