Crime and Punishment

What were some forms of law enforcement during the Anglo-Saxon period?
Trial by ordeal , Kings Peace , Collective responsibility (Witan/tithings/hue and cry/shire reeves) , Church , Earls
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What were some Anglo- Saxon punishments?
Wergild , Isolation , whipping , maiming , death penalty
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Who created the feudal system?
Norman king: William 1 in 1066
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What were social crimes?
Crimes which were illegal but majority of people didn't care about
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What were some Norman crimes?
poaching , treason , leaving your lord , poaching
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What new law enforcement was introduced under the Normans?
Trial by combat , Castles , Church crimes ( for moral crimes- sent on pilgrimage - lucky to have)
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When was the Black death?
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When was trial by ordeal ended?
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What was the role of the king in the Later middle ages?
Henry 11 : limited church power , more centralized law enforcement , re-organised church courts , Justices of Eyre introduced (dealt with he most serious crimes)
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What were three ways law enforcement became more centralized
1) Local sherrifs appointed by the King (responsible for keeping the kings peace) 2)New officials appointed (JP's) 3) trial by jury replaced trial by ordeal (1215)
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When was the Statute of Laborers introduced?
1351 (it introduced a maximum wage for workers)
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When and what was the vagrancy act?
1547 (It was the harsh punishments for vagrancy eg if out of work for 3 days- branded with a' V' as sold as a slave for 2 years. ) Abolished in 1550
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When was the Relief of the poor act?
1597 (harsh punishments for vagrants - whipping , maiming , hot iron) - Deterent
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When was the Poor Law?
1601 (Overseers were appointed by JP's and helped find the poor work)
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When was Early Modern England?
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How many capitol crimes were there by 1688?
50 - increased
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What were Prisons like in c.1500-1700?
Poor conditions , held petty criminals , run by independent jailers (not centralized and had to pay for food and bedding, everyone was housed together , younger criminals were easily influenced)
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When was James the I's demonology written?
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What were factors to encourage witch hunts?
1) James I 2)Religion 3)Lack of scientific knowledge 4) Matthew Hopkins 5) Social + Economics (divide in religion, black death) 6) Superstitions
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When was the English civil war?
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When was the Industrial Period?
c.1700 - 1900
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What were changes to crime during c.1700-1900?
1) Highway robbery (increased as trade increased) 2) Smuggling (1780 Will Pitt lowered import duties so it decreased) 3) Decriminalizing of witches (now seen as a joke)
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When was the Black Act?
1723 (illegal to blacken your face , own hunting dogs or snares whilst in a hunting area)
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How many crimes were punishable by death during the industrial period?
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Who were the Tolpuddle Martys?
Feb 1834, 6 farmers had broken the law by administering a secret oath . They wee protesting over low wages . Sentanced to 7 years transportation to Australia . Returned after 4 years due to public pressure on the gov. Seen as hero's.
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When did transportation to America begin and end?
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When did transportation to Australia begin and end?
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Why was transportation introduced?
1) not enough room in English prisons 2)cheaper 3) helped build Britain's empire (eg re populate with British blood) 4) helped with manual labour
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Why did transportation end?
1)Changes between counrties (Australia blamed UK for their high crime rates, taking jobs and money) 2) conditions argued as inhumane 3) argued as lenient (an excuse to go on holiday/build new life- less of a deterrent) 5)more prisons built in England
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When was the punishment of death act?
1832 - reduces the number of capitol crimes to 60
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Who were the Luddites?
(1811-16) Textile workers who destroyed machinery and angry they were replacing manual jobs. The crime could be punishable by death. As technology advanced, unemployment grew.
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Describe public executions.
wasnt a great deterrent , carnival atmosphere , allowed room for other crimes (pick pockets) , seen as inhumane , policing crowds was expensive and difficult.
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Who was Elizabeth Fry?
(1780-1845) She influences the gaols act (female prisons were separate to male with female staff) , Prisoners got food, clothing and beds , traveled to many countries to improve peoples lives.
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Who was Robert Peel?
Prime minister in 1834-1835 then 1841-46 , Became home secretary in 1822 , set up the metropolitan police force , reformed prisons , made prisons more centralized ( gaolers get paid)
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What is the continuity and change with the police fore during the industrial period?
CONTINUITY= prevented crime, caught criminals, helped with public services. CHANGE= Paid, full time work , standardized training, centralized system, military style heiarchy
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What were the critisms of the police?
'Blue devils', like an army, not effective, tried to opress public opinion, lacked education (Peel made it better eg they must be in good shape)
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How was Pentonville similar to previous prisons?
Inc. harsh manual labor, poor conditions, cells, ineffective rehabilitation
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How was pentonville different to previous prisons?
(Built in 1842) Had a sepertate system, convicts were isolated (only allowed to go out to church), more hygienic (own toilet) harsher, government controlled.
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When was the missuse of drugs act passed?
1971 (fines and prison sentences)
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When was the domestic violence act?
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When were speed cameras introduced?
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When was the slave trade abolished in the UK?
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When was the Derek Bentley case?
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What were changes to law enforcement from c.1900-2000?
1920 - Women were recruited to police, 1947- police training college, Development in science and technology, Specialist departments (eg drug unit), Neighborhood watch, 1995- fingerprint database
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What were the key changes to punishment in the 20th cent?
Last hanging 1965, mentally ill prisons were separate (1896), 1922 education imprisons (increased rehabilitation), Punishments for the youth ( Borstals-1902, electronic tags)
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When was the death penalty abolished?
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What were changing ideas of crimes in 20th cent?
Abortion- legal if allowed by doctor (illegal till 1968), racism is a crime (racial and religious act 2006)
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When was the domestic violence act?
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What were changing ideas of punishments (1900-2000)?
More sympathetic, focused on rehabilitation, young offender prisons created, community service
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What were Tribunals?
court which judged whether people could avoid military service is their conscience didn't allow it, not very fair courts
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What were some Anglo- Saxon punishments?


Wergild , Isolation , whipping , maiming , death penalty

Card 3


Who created the feudal system?


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Card 4


What were social crimes?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What were some Norman crimes?


Preview of the front of card 5
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