Crime and Gender

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List 3 reasons why women are less likely to appear on the Official Crime Stats
1) Different socialisation 2) Underestimated stats 3) Controls
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1) Different Socialisation
> Women aren't taught values such as toughness and agression (Oakley) > Women don't conform to the 'ideal criminal' image. > A female criminal woudl likely be labelled as a bad mother
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2) Underestimated Stats
> Female crimes go unreported/ masked as women are raised as good liars (Pollak) > Child abuse by mothers is far higher than expected (36%)
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3) Controls
> Opportunity- girls are subject to greater social control, more likely to have a 'bedroom culture' (McRobbie) > Patriarchy & domestic violence- can't break from role. > Reputation- fear of labels e.g '****' (Sue Lees)
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List 3 reasons for a rising female crime rate
1) Marginalisation thesis 2) Opportunity theory 3) Control theory
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1) Marginalisation Thesis
Working class (w/c) women who earn less and rely upon men will commit crime to supplement household budget. > Left Realist- relative deprivation and bulimic society= desires conspicuous consumption
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2) Opportunity Theory
> Women make advances in legitimate opportunity structure so why not the illegitimate one? (Adler) > Girls are increasingly involved in risk-taking behaviour and adopting male attitudes of 'being in control' (Denscome)
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3) Control Theory
> Pat Carlen's study of 39 female offenders- by being unemployed and most had been in care as youngsters- therefore rejecting both 'class' and 'gender' deals.
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List the Messerschmidts 3 types of masculinity
1) Hegemonic 2) Subordinate 3) Accommodating
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Define 'hegemonic masculinity'
Hegemonic masculinity is achieved through highly paid, high status work, subordinating women, heterosexism and the uncontrollable sexuality of men.
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Define 'subordinate masculinity'
Subordinate masculinities are less desireable which some men turn to as they lack the resources to achieve hegemonic masculinity.
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Define 'accommodating masculinty'
White middle-classyouths succeed at school but at the price of being subserviant to teachers. Therefore they commit petty crimes such as pranks and vandalism to feel emasculated.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

> Women aren't taught values such as toughness and agression (Oakley) > Women don't conform to the 'ideal criminal' image. > A female criminal woudl likely be labelled as a bad mother

Back

1) Different Socialisation

Card 3

Front

> Female crimes go unreported/ masked as women are raised as good liars (Pollak) > Child abuse by mothers is far higher than expected (36%)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

> Opportunity- girls are subject to greater social control, more likely to have a 'bedroom culture' (McRobbie) > Patriarchy & domestic violence- can't break from role. > Reputation- fear of labels e.g '****' (Sue Lees)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1) Marginalisation thesis 2) Opportunity theory 3) Control theory

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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