Crime and Deviance Theories/ Quotes

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Durkheim
Negatives and Positives of crime- 1) Anomie- The breaking down of norms and values 2) Adaption and change- All change starts as an act of defiance
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Davis
Crime as a safety valve- Prostitution acts as a safety valve for the release of mean's sexual frustrations without threatening the monogamous nuclear family.
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Cohen
Positive of crime- Acts as a warning device- Crime tells us that somethings needs to be done to make sure society is functioning properly E.g. Truancy= Truancy officers
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Cloward and Ohlin
Three subcultures- Retreatist- Failed criminal subculture so retreat to drugs + alchohol , Conflict- instead of committing serious crimes, large thieft, gain rep through gang violence and Criminal- families which adopt a criminal lifestyle
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Matza
Drift theory- Delinquent activity is not a way of life but something people drift in and out of. Everyone has the ability to be criminal
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Miller
6 focal concerns- each concern is made up by people with simillar dominant traits e.g. toughness, excitement, smartness...
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Merton
Strain theory- Created different strains (e.g. Rebellion, Retreatism, Innovators) All people aspire for the american dream, but not all can achieve it. People reach in a number of ways: deviant adaptation
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Chambliss
Vagrancy Laws- required all people to accept work at a low and fixed wage.-This shows that the laws were introduced and interpreted to benefit the higher classes and ensure that they could obtain a cheap workforce to continue their exploitation
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Reinman
Selective Enforcement- Powerless groups in society are criminalised and the police and courts tend to ignore the crimes of the powerful
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Carson
Sample of 200 firms, all have broken health and safety laws but only 1.5% of these cases have resulted in prosecution
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Pearce
While the law appear to benefit the working classes, laws such as health and safety laws create a 'caring' face and reproduce false class consciousness-Benefit the ruling class as they keep a healthy work force
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Snider
The state are reluctant to pass laws that regulate the activities of businessmen or the ruling class- Hunting Act 2004
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Gordon
Crime is a rational response to the capitalist system and hence is found in all social classes- even though the official statistics make it appear to be a largely working-class phenomenon
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Major
"Society needs to condemn more and understand less"
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Major
"Punishment not rehabilitation"
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Herrnstein and Wilson
Biological Factors- -Some people are 'more predisposed to commit crime than other.'
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Herrnstein and Murray
Biological Factors- The main cause of crime is low intelligence
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Diulia and Walter
Socialisation of the underclass"Crime is a result of growing up surrounded by deviants"
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Murry
Socialisation of the underclass -Argues that crime is rising due to the lower classes failure to socialise their children adequately
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Ron Clarke
Rational Choice-The decision to commit a crime is a choice. It occurs as the result of a calculation. -Do the reward out-weight the cost or consequences of the crime?
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Wilson and Kelling
Broken Windows theory- To stop crime we need to fix broken windows. -Clean up areas to make people respect them.
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Lea and Young
Relative Deprivation- we are targeted by advertising to feel as if we need material items. This is known as consumerism- Crime occurs when people become to preoccupied in the need for these items.
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Cloward and Ohlin
Subclutures- A Subculture is the result of not being able to reach the goals of society- Individuals instead take recluse with other members of society who cannot achieve the goal.
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Young
Marginalisation -The process whereby some people are pushed to the margins or edges of society.
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Miers
3 features of Victimology- 1) there are characteristics which make someone more likely to be a victim 2) focuses on face to face crime of violence 3) aims
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Hentig
Victim Proneness- 13 characteristic which, if had, makes a person more likely to be victim of crime- be females, elderly or ‘mentally subnormal.’
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Wolfgang
Victim Precipitation- looked at 588 homicides in America, found 26% involved victim precipitation- The victim had triggered the event leading to the crime, usually being the first to commit violence.
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Ron Clarke
Situational Crime Prevention- Agencies target areas and develop crime prevention techniques in ares to reduce crime- e.g. CCTV, anti-clime paint and barbed wire.
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Garland
Displacement- Does not reduce crime, just moves the crime to a different area
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Otto Pollak
Chivalry Thesis- Most criminal justice agencies, such as police and judges, are men and these men have been socialised to be 'chivalrous' to women- Men protect and are more lenient toward women in the criminal justice system
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Farrington and Morris
Study in a court found that women's were not sentenced more leniently than men
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Messerschmidt
Crime is used by men to accomplish their masculinity
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Statistic (OCR)
87% of all crime reported is committed by men
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Statistic
4/5 convicted offenders in England and Whales are male
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Giddens
Globalisation- "The interconnectedness of societies"
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Castells
Transnational Organised Crime -Because of globalisation and the increase of ‘interconnectedness’ there is now a global criminal economy worth over £1trillion per year
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Taylor
-Rise in TNC's -Production moves to cheaper countries -Exploitation of the poor in cheaper countries -Western citizens suffer from network moving abroad -Globalisation has increased opportunities for financial fraud
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Beck
Global Risk Consciousness- Due to Globalisation, we now feel that problems and 'risks' are global rather than local. -E.G. Terrorism, Immigration
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Hobbs and Dunningham
Glocal Crime- Requires both local and global influences -E.G. Drugs
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Situ and Emmons
Green Crime- "An unauthorised act or omission that violated the law"
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White
"Less about breaking the law, more about harm to environments" - subjective -Legal definitions differ from country to country therefore if we took a legal stance, what would be illegal in one country could be legal in another
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Green and Ward
State crime- 'Illegal or deviant activities perpetrated (carried out) by, or with the complicity (help) of, state agencies'
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McLaughlin
4 Types of State Crime: Political (Censorship and Corruption), Crimes by police force or security agencies (Genoside, torture...), Economic crimes (Tax Evision, Violation of Health and Safety Laws), Social or cultural crimes (Institutional Racism)
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Herman and Schwendinger
We should define crimes in terms of violation of human rights (if the state breaches human rights then they are criminal.)
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Cohen
How can we agree on human rights? These may be dependent on many factors- If we do not agree on what is a human right, we cannot define crimes as breaches of these- May confuse what is morally wrong with what should be defined as criminally wrong
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Cohen
The Spiral of Denial -It didn’t happen -If it did happen it is something else (e.g. Collateral damage) -Even if it has happened, it is justified
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Matza
Neutralisation- How do states and officials justify their crimes -Denial of the victim -Denial of the injury -Denial of responsibility -Condemning the condemners -Appeal to higher loyalty
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Shaw and McKay
The Concentric Zone- Transitional Zone- Where anomie occurs- Recently immigrated groups, deteriorating homes, factories, abandoned home
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Durkheim
4 Types of Suicide- Altruistic (Acting unselfishly, directed by a concern for others even if it is harmful to oneself, strongly integrated), Fatalistic( belief that nothing can be done to help the situation, too much regulation)
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Durkheim #2
Egotistic (Ego mean self, little integration) and Anomic (lack of regulation of peoples desires and expectation)
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Douglas
Looked at; suicide notes, diaries, interviewed people who knew the victim... Identified 5 types of suicide: Revenge, search for help, escape, repentance and self-punishment
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Atkinson's
Researched into coroners
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Taylor
Submissive( Certainty suicide, individual has no hope, they are already dead), Thanatation (Uncertainty suicide, individual is uncertain about themselves, identity, demand answer from suicide)
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Taylor #2
Appeal Suicide (Cry for help to those who are strongly attached, often preceded by warnings) and Sacrifice (Directed by powerful attachment to others, no uncertainty)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Crime as a safety valve- Prostitution acts as a safety valve for the release of mean's sexual frustrations without threatening the monogamous nuclear family.

Back

Davis

Card 3

Front

Positive of crime- Acts as a warning device- Crime tells us that somethings needs to be done to make sure society is functioning properly E.g. Truancy= Truancy officers

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Three subcultures- Retreatist- Failed criminal subculture so retreat to drugs + alchohol , Conflict- instead of committing serious crimes, large thieft, gain rep through gang violence and Criminal- families which adopt a criminal lifestyle

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Drift theory- Delinquent activity is not a way of life but something people drift in and out of. Everyone has the ability to be criminal

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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